Gender issues in health

From HLWIKI Canada
Revision as of 20:43, 6 February 2012 by Dean (Talk | contribs)

Jump to: navigation, search
Are you interested in contributing to HLWIKI Canada - contact:

To browse other articles on a range of HSL topics, see the wiki index.


See also Men's Health and Women's Health

In the 21st century, many questions are being asked about differences between the care of women and men as they move through the health care system. Questions about the quality of patient care received by women, including those in elderly and ethnic populations, have generated not only a general interest in change, but also new mandates by various levels of government. There is an increasing awareness of the need to initiate studies to identify differences in health care, to recognize and assess disease symptoms, to improve diagnosis and prognosis, and to increase knowledge of gender issues as they affect health.



  • Allali, F., El Aichaoui, S., Saoud, B., Maaroufi, H., Abouqal, R., & Hajjaj-Hassouni, N. (2006). The impact of clothing style on bone mineral density among postmenopausal women in Morocco: A case-control study. BMC Public Health, 6, 135-141.
  • Amaro, H., & Raj, A. (2000). On the margin: Power and women’s HIV risk reduction strategies. Sex Roles, 42(7), 723-749.
  • Autier, P., Boniol, M., Severi, G., Pedeux, R., Grivegnee, A., & Dore, J., et al. (2004). Sex differences in numbers of nevi on body sites of young European children: Implications for the etiology of cutaneous melanoma. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers Prevention, 13(12), 2003-2005.
  • Barakat, K., Wilkinson, P., Suliman, A., Ranjadayalan, K., & Timmis, A. (2000). Acute myocardial infarction in women: Contribution of treatment variables to adverse outcome. American Heart Journal, 140(5), 740-746.
  • Bem, S.L. (1981). Bem sex role inventory: Professional manual. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
  • Blum, D. (1999). Sex on the brain: The biological differences between men and women. New York: Penguin.
  • Bottorff, J.L., Johnson, J.L., Irwin, L.G., & Ratner, P.A. (2000). Narratives of smoking relapse: The stories of postpartum women. Research in Nursing Health, 23(2), 126-134.
  • Bottorff, J.L., Kalaw, C., Johnson, J.L., Stewart, M., Greaves, L., & Carey, J. (2006). Couple dynamics during women’s tobacco reduction in pregnancy and postpartum. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 8(4), 499-509.
  • Burns, N., & Grove, S.K. (2001). The practice of nursing research: Conduct, critique and utilization (4th ed.). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.
  • Cahill, L. (2006). Why sex matters for neuroscience. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 7(6), 477-484.
  • Cenci, S., Weitzmann, M.N., Roggia, C., Namba, N., Novack, D., Woodring, J., et al. (2000). Estrogen deficiency induces bone loss by enhancing T-cell production of TNF-α. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 106(10), 1229-1237.
  • Chauhan, V.S., Krahn, A.D., Walker, B.D., Klein, G.J., Skanes, A.C., & Yee, R. (2002/11). Sex differences in QTc interval and QT dispersion: Dynamics during exercise and recovery in healthy subjects. American Heart Journal, 144(5), 858-864.
  • Choi, N., & Fuqua, D.R. (2003). The structure of the Bem sex role inventory: A summary report of 23 validation studies. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 63(5), 872-887.
  • Choudhury, K.K., Hanifi, M.A., Rasheed, S., & Bhuiya, A. (2000). Gender inequality and severe malnutrition among children in a remote rural area of Bangladesh. Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition, 18(3), 123-130.
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) (n.d.). Gender and sex-based analysis in health research: A guide for CIHR peer review committees.
  • Cole, S.R., Kawachi, I., Maller, S.J., & Berkman, L.F. (2000). Test of item-response bias in the CES-D scale: Experience from the New Haven EPESE study. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 53(3), 285-289.
  • Connell, R. (1987). Gender and power. Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Damaj, M.I. (2001). Influence of gender and sex hormones on nicotine acute pharmacological effects in mice. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 296(1), 132-140.
  • Darroch, J.E., & Frost, J.J. (1999). Women’s interest in vaginal microbicides. Family Planning Perspectives, 31(1), 16-23.
  • Diez-Roux, A.V. (2000). Multilevel analysis in public health research. Annual Review of Public Health, 21(1), 171-192.
  • Doss, B.D., & Hopkins, J.R. (1998). The multicultural masculinity ideology scale: Validation from three cultural perspectives. Sex Roles, 38(9), 719-741.
  • Eichler, M. (2000). Moving toward equality: Improving the health of all people: Recognizing and eliminating gender bias in health. (Draft) Ottawa: Women’s Health Bureau.
  • Eisler, R.M., Skidmore, J.R., & Ward, C.H. (1988). Masculine gender-role stress: Predictor of anger, anxiety, and health-risk behaviors. Journal of Personality Assessment, 52(1), 133-141.
  • Ene-Obong, H.N., Enugu, G.I., & Uwaegbute, A.C. (2001). Determinants of health and nutritional status of rural Nigerian women. Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition, 19(4),320-330.
  • Ettorre, E. (2004). Revisioning women and drug use: Gender sensitivity, embodiment and reducing harm. International Journal of Drug Policy, 15(5-6), 327-335.
  • Farzadegan, H., Hoover, D.R., Astemborski, J., Lyles, C.M., Margolick, J.B., Markham, R.B., et al. (1998). Sex differences in HIV-1 viral load and progression to AIDS. The Lancet, 352(9139), 1510-1514.
  • Fausto-Sterling, A. (2005). The bare bones of sex: Part 1 — Sex and gender. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 30(2), 1491-1527.
  • Fischman, R.J., Wick, J.G., & Koenig, B.A. (1999). The use of sex and gender to define and characterize meaningful differences between men and women in National Institutes of Health 1999 agenda on women’s health in the 21st century. Washington DC: Office on Research on Women’s Health.
  • Gesensway, D. (2001). Reasons for sex-specific and gender-specific study of health topics. Annals of Internal Medicine, 135(10), 935-938.
  • Gill, S., Stockard, J., Johnson, M., & Williams, S. (1987). Measuring gender differences: The expressive dimension and critique of androgyny scales. Sex Roles, 17(7), 375-400.
  • Gillespie, B.L., & Eisler, R.M. (1992). Development of the feminine gender role stress scale: A cognitive-behavioral measure of stress, appraisal, and coping for women. Behavior Modification, 16(3), 426-438. WOMEN’S HEALTH RESEARCH NETWORK 29
  • Gourdy, P., Araujo, L.M., Zhu, R., Garmy-Susini, B., Diem, S., Laurell, H., et al. (2005). Relevance of sexual dimorphism to regulatory T cells: Estradiol promotes IFN-gamma production by invariant natural killer T cells. Blood, 105(6), 2415-2420.
  • Grant, K., & Ballem, P. (2000). A women’s health research institute in the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Ottawa: Working Group on the CIHR, Gender and Women’s Health Research.
  • Gray, G. (1998). How Australia came to have a national women’s health policy. International Journal of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation, 28(1), 107-125.
  • Greaves, L., Johnson, J., Bottorff, J., Kirkland, S., Jategaonkar, N., & McGowan, M., et al. (2006). What are the effects of tobacco policies on vulnerable populations? A better practices review. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 97(4), 310-315.
  • Greaves, L., Hankivsky, O., Amaratunga, C., Ballem, P., Chow, D., De Koninck, M. et al. (1999). CIHR 2000: Sex, gender and women’s health. Vancouver: British Columbia Centre of Excellence in Women’s Health.
  • Gregg, C., Shikar, V., Larsen, P., Mak, G., Chojnacki, A., Yong, V.W., & Weiss, S. (2007). White matter plasticity and enhanced remyelination in the maternal CNS. The Journal of Neuroscience, 27(8), 1812-1823.
  • Health Canada (1997). Therapeutic products programme guidelines: Inclusion of women in clinical trials. Ottawa: Health Canada.

  • Health Canada (1999). Women’s health strategy. Ottawa: Health Canada.
  • Health Canada. (2000). Health Canada’s gender-based analysis policy. Ottawa: Health Canada.
  • Health Canada. (2003). Exploring concepts of gender and health. Ottawa: Women’s Health Bureau.
  • Hines, M. (2004). Brain gender. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Hood, E. (2005). Are EDCs blurring issues of gender? Environmental Health Perspectives, 113(10), 670-677.
  • Humphries, K.H., Kerr, C.R., Connolly, S.J., Klein, G., Boone, J.A., Green, M., et al. (2001). New-onset atrial fibrillation: Sex differences in presentation, treatment, and outcome. Circulation, 103(19), 2365-2370.
  • Institute of Medicine (U.S.). (2001). Wizemann T.M., & Pardue M. (Eds.). Exploring the biological contributions to human health: Does sex matter? Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
  • Kaffman, A. & Meaney, M. (2007). Neurodevelopmental sequelae of postnatal maternal care in rodents: Clinical and research implications of molecular insights. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48(3/4), 224-244.
  • Kapral, M.K., & Redelmeier, D.A. (2000). Carotid endarterectomy for women and men. Journal of Women’s Health and Gender-Based Medicine, 9(9), 987-994.
  • Karanian, J.W., & Ramwell, P.W. (1996). Effect of gender and sex steroids on the contractile response of canine coronary and renal blood vessels. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, 27(3), 312-319.
  • Kerr, L.R., Hundal, R., Silva, W.A., Emerman, J.T., & Weinberg, J. (2001). Effects of social housing condition on chemotherapeutic efficacy in a shionogi carcinoma (SC115) mouse tumor model: Influences of temporal factors, tumor size, and tumor growth rate. Psychosomatic Medicine, 63(6), 973-984.
  • Kippin, T.E., Fuchs, R.A., Mehta, R.H., Case, J.M., Parker, M.P., Bimonte-Nelson, H.A., et al. (2005). Potentiation of cocaine-primed reinstatement of drug seeking in female rats during estrus. Psychopharmacology, 182(2), 245-252.
  • Knaak, S. (2004). On the reconceptualizing of gender: Implications for research design. Sociological Inquiry, 74(3), 302-317.
  • Koestner, R., & Aube, J. (1995). A multifactorial approach to the study of gender characteristics. Journal of Personality, 63(3), 681-710.
  • Kosten, T.A., Zhang, X.Y., & Kehoe, P. (2006). Heightened cocaine and food self-administration in female rats with neonatal isolation experience. Neuropsychopharmacology, 31(1), 70-76.
  • Krieger, N. (2003). Genders, sexes, and health: What are the connections — and why does it matter? International Journal of Epidemiology, 32(4), 652-657.
  • Kudielka, B.M., & Kirschbaum, C. (2005/4). Sex differences in HPA axis responses to stress: A review. Biological Psychology, 69(1), 113-132.
  • Kuehner, C. (2003). Gender differences in unipolar depression: An update of epidemiological findings and possible explanations. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 108(3), 163-174.
  • Lippman, A. (2006). The inclusion of women in clinical trials: Are we asking the right questions? Women and Health Protection.
  • Lotter, H., Jacobs, T., Gaworski, I., & Tannich, E. (2006). Sexual dimorphism in the control of amebic liver abscess in a mouse model of disease. Infection and Immunity, 74(1), 118-124.
  • Lynch, W.J. (2006). Sex differences in vulnerability to drug self-administration. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 14(1), 34-41.
  • Lynch, W.J., Roth, M.E., & Carroll, M.E. (2002). Biological basis of sex differences in drug abuse: Preclinical and clinical studies. Psychopharmacology, 164(2), 121-137.
  • Miers, M. (2002). Developing an understanding of gender sensitive care: Exploring concepts and knowledge. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 40(1), 69-77.
  • Ore, T. (1998). Women in the U.S. construction industry: An analysis of fatal occupational injury experience, 1980 to 1992. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 33(3), 256-262.
  • Orlofsky, J.L. (1981). Relationship between sex role attitudes and personality traits and the Sex Role Behavior Scale-1: A new measure of masculine and feminine role behaviors and interests. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40, 927-940.
  • Palanza, P., Gioiosa, L., & Parmigiani, S. (2001/6). Social stress in mice: Gender differences and effects of estrous cycle and social dominance. Physiology and Behavior, 73(3), 411-420.
  • Phillips, S.P. (2005). Defining and measuring gender: A social determinant of health whose time has come. Int Journal for Equity in Health, 4, 11-15.
  • Powers, P.S. (1999). Osteoporosis and eating disorders. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, 12, 51-57.
  • Prescott, E., Hippe, M., Schnohr, P., Hein, H.O., & Vestbo, J. (1998). Smoking and risk of myocardial infarction in women and men: Longitudinal population study. British Medical Journal (Clinical research ed.), 316(7137), 1043-1047.
  • Radloff, L.S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1(3), 385-401.
  • Rapuri, P.B., Gallagher, J.C., Kinyamu, H.K., & Ryschon, K.L. (2001). Caffeine intake increases the rate of bone loss in elderly women and interacts with vitamin D receptor genotypes. Am J Clin Nutr 74(5), 694-700.
  • Rice, T.W., & Coates, D.L. (1995). Gender role attitudes in the southern United States. Gender and Society, 9(6), 744-756.
  • Riggs, B.L. (2000). The mechanisms of estrogen regulation of bone resorption. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 106(10), 1203-1204.
  • Roberts, D.C.S., Bennett, S.A.L., & Vickers, G.J. (1989). The estrous cycle affects cocaine self-administration on a progressive ratio schedule in rats. Psychopharmacology, 98(3), 408-411.
  • Rosenfeld, A.G. (2001). Women’s risk of decision delay in acute myocardial infarction: Implications for research and practice. AACN Clinical Issues, 12(1), 29-39.
  • Rosenfeld, A.G., Lindauer, A., & Darney, B.G. (2005). Understanding treatment-seeking delay in women with acute myocardial infarction: Descriptions of decision-making patterns. American Journal of Critical Care, 14(4), 285-293.
  • Shaywitz, B.A., Shaywitz, S.E., Pugh, K.R., Constable, R.T., Skudlarski, P., Fulbright, R.K., et al. (1995). Sex differences in the functional organization of the brain for language. Nature, 373, 607-609.
  • Spence, J.T., Helmreich, R., & Stapp, J. (1974). Personal attributes questionnaire: A measure of sex role stereotypes and masculinity-femininity. JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 4, 127.
  • Spitzer, D. (n.d.). Gender and sex-based analysis in health research: A guide for CIHR peer review committees. Ottawa: Health Canada.
  • Taylor, S.E., Klein, L.C., Lewis, B.P., Gruenewald, T.L., Gurung, R.A.R., & Updegraff, J.A. (2000). Biobehavioral responses to stress in females: Tend-and-befriend, not fight-or-flight. Psychological Review, 107(3), 411-18.
  • Thompson, E.H., Pleck, J.H., & Ferrera, D.L. (1992). Men and masculinities: Scales for masculinity ideology and masculinity related concepts. Sex Roles, 27, 573-607.
  • Turner, J.M., Bulsara, M.K., McDermott, B.M., Byrne, G.C., Prince, R.L., & Forbes, D.A. (2001). Predictors of low bone density in young adolescent females with anorexia nervosa and other dieting disorders. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 30(3), 245-251.
  • Varia, M., Wilson, S., Sarwal, S., McGeer, A., Gournis, E., Galanis, E., et al. (2003). Investigation of a nosocomial outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Toronto, Canada. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 169(4), 285-292.
  • Vidaver, R.M., Lafleur, B., Tong, C., Bradshaw, R., & Marts, S.A. (2000). Women subjects in NIH-funded clinical research literature: Lack of progress in both representation and analysis by sex. Journal of Women’s Health and Gender-Based Medicine 9(5), 495-504.
  • Ward, K.D., & Klesges, R.C. (2001). A meta-analysis of the effects of cigarette smoking on bone mineral density. Calcified Tissue International, 68(5), 259-270.
  • Women and Health Programme. (2005). World Health Organization Centre for Health Development. Report of the consultative meeting to finalize a gender-sensitive core set of leading health indicators. Kobe, Japan: World Health Organization.
  • World Economic Forum. (2005). Women’s empowerment: Measuring the global gender gap.
Personal tools