Difference between revisions of "Canadian Search Standards Working Group — Glossary of Search Terms 2017"

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==PRISMA FLOW DIAGRAM GENERATOR==
 
==PRISMA FLOW DIAGRAM GENERATOR==
 
*'''Definition''': ''A PRISMA Flow Diagram, described in the PRISMA Statement is a graphical representation of the flow of citations reviewed in the course of a Systematic Review. By using the recommended form one can produce a diagram easily in any of 10 different publication formats. The diagram is produced using the Open Source dot program (part of graphviz), and this tool provides the source for one's diagram if further tweaking is needed.''
 
*'''Definition''': ''A PRISMA Flow Diagram, described in the PRISMA Statement is a graphical representation of the flow of citations reviewed in the course of a Systematic Review. By using the recommended form one can produce a diagram easily in any of 10 different publication formats. The diagram is produced using the Open Source dot program (part of graphviz), and this tool provides the source for one's diagram if further tweaking is needed.''
*'''Source''': The TA Collaborative http://prisma.thetacollaborative.ca The PRISMA 2009 Flow Diagram http://www.prisma-statement.org/documents/PRISMA%202009%20flow%20diagram.pdf
+
*'''Source''': Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG; The PRISMA Group. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta- Analyses: The PRISMA Statement. ''PLoS Med''. 2009; 6:7.    Available from: e1000097. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed1000097    http://www.prisma-statement.org/documents/PRISMA%202009%20flow%20diagram.pdf
+
 
 
==PROXIMITY OPERATOR==
 
==PROXIMITY OPERATOR==
 
*'''Definition''': ''A special kind of Boolean operator used to search for occurrences of words adjacent to or within a certain number of words from another word (or group of words). ''
 
*'''Definition''': ''A special kind of Boolean operator used to search for occurrences of words adjacent to or within a certain number of words from another word (or group of words). ''

Revision as of 08:55, 21 April 2017

In 2014, Canadian Search Standards Working Group (CSSWG) started work on a literature searching standard for health libraries written by librarians, for librarians. They presented their findings at the CHLA/ABSC 2015 conference and conducted a Delphi survey in 2015. Now they would like feedback about the glossary of ~100 terms below.
Are you interested in contributing to HLWIKI International? contact: dean.giustini@ubc.ca

To browse other articles on a range of HSL topics, see the A-Z index.

Contents

Last Update

  • Updated.jpg 25 March 2017

Introduction

See also Evidence-based health care | Grey literature | Hand-searching | Reporting standards for literature reviews in health | Search filters & hedges | Snowballing

INTRODUCTION

  • This glossary contains about 100 terminologies used in the literature related to searching for health information.
  • For each definition, a relevant source or sources have been cited.
  • The Canadian Search Standards Working Group (CSSWG) now seeks input on these glossary terms to develop a standard lexicon for literature searching.
  • A search standard and a list of standard definitions facilitate coherent conversations among professionals.
  • If you know of additional relevant terms or definitions, please include an authoritative source with your entry by e-mailing the wiki administrator: dean.giustini@ubc.ca.

ANALYZE

  • Definition: "...To examine an item or data set to identify patterns & relationships, e.g. Analyze the market so I know where my strengths and weaknesses are."
  • Source: Russell-Rose T, Makri S, A Model of Consumer Search Behaviour. In Wilson M, Russell Rose T, Larsen B, Kalbach J, (eds) Proceedings of the 2nd European Workshop on Human-Computer Interaction and Information Retrieval. Nijmegen, The Netherlands, August 25, 2012. Available from: https://isquared.wordpress.com/2012/09/18/a-model-of-consumer-search-behaviour/

AUTOMATIC TERM MAPPING

  • Definition: "...The process used to find a controlled vocabulary term. For example in PubMed it is used to match unqualified terms that are entered into the query box. If a match is found in any translation table, the mapping stops. When subject or journal matches are found, the query and individual terms are also searched in All Fields. If no match is found in any tables, terms are searched in All Fields and ANDed together."
  • Source: US National Library of Medicine, PubMed Tutorial Glossary Available from: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/disted/pubmedtutorial/glossary.html

BERRYPICKING

  • Definition: "...A comparison to classic search in manual environments: a straight line leading to a single best retrieved set. Not to be confused with "cherry picking" Term falling out of use..."
  • Source: Bates M. The Design of Browsing and Berrypicking Techniques for the Online Search Interface. Online Review. 1989;13(5 ): 407-24. Available from: https://pages.gseis.ucla.edu/faculty/bates/berrypicking.html

"BIBBLE"

  • Definition: "...To look for a bibliography already prepared, before launching oneself into the effect of preparing one; more generally, to check to see if the search work one plans has already been done in a usable form by someone else.
  • Source: Bates M. Information Search Tactics. Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 1979;30: 205-214. Available from: http://pages.gseis.ucla.edu/faculty/bates/articles/Information%20Search%20Tactics.html

BOOLEAN OPERATOR

  • Definition: "...A set of words (AND, OR, NOT, or proximity operators) used as conjunctions to combine or exclude keywords in a search strategy.

CHECK

CHAINING

  • Definition: "...Chaining (backward or forward chaining - following references in initial information sources)
  • Source: Ellis D, Cox D, Hall K. A Comparison of the Information Seeking Patterns of Researchers in the Physical and Social Sciences. Journal of Documentation 1993;49(4): 356–369. Available from: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/eb026919

COMMAND EXPRESSION

COMMAND NAME

COMPARE

  • Definition: To identify similarities & differences within a set of items, e.g. Compare cars that are my possible candidates in detail.
  • Source: Russell-Rose T, Makri S, A Model of Consumer Search Behaviour. In Wilson M, Russell Rose T, Larsen B, Kalbach J, (eds) Proceedings of the 2nd European Workshop on Human-Computer Interaction and Information Retrieval. Nijmegen, The Netherlands, August 25, 2012. Available from: https://isquared.wordpress.com/2012/09/18/a-model-of-consumer-search-behaviour/

COMPREHEND

  • Definition: To generate independent insight by interpreting patterns within a data set, e.g. “Understand what my competitors are selling”.
  • Source: Russell-Rose T, Makri S, A Model of Consumer Search Behaviour. In Wilson M, Russell Rose T, Larsen B, Kalbach J, (eds) Proceedings of the 2nd European Workshop on Human-Computer Interaction and Information Retrieval. Nijmegen, The Netherlands, August 25, 2012. Available from: https://isquared.wordpress.com/2012/09/18/a-model-of-consumer-search-behaviour/

COMPREHENSIVE SEARCH

  • Definition: To discover all the published or otherwise available material…irrespective of form, date of publication, language or technical level”
  • Source: Hanson CW. Introduction to Science-Information Work. London: Aslib; 1971. pp.135.

CONCEPT

  • Definition: The basic building block of a theory
  • Source: Guyatt G, Rennie D, Meade M, Cook D. Users Guides to the Medical Literature, Essentials of Evidence Based Clinical Practice. 2nd ed. New York: The McGraw Hill Companies Inc; 2008.

CONCEPT MAP

  • Definition: Concept maps are graphical tools for organizing and representing knowledge.
  • Source: Novak J, Cañas A. The theory of concept maps and how to construct and use them. Available from: http://cmap.ihmc.us/docs/theory-of-concept-maps

CONTRARY

  • Definition: To search for the term logically opposite from that describing the desired information. For example, one may want information on “cooperation” and, after an unsuccessful search, change the term to “competition.”
  • Source: Bates M. Information Search Tactics. Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 1979;30: 205-214. Available from: http://pages.gseis.ucla.edu/faculty/bates/articles/Information%20Search%20Tactics.html

CORRECT

CUT

DATABASE

  • Definition: Electronic Databases, (are) most typically bibliographic databases that can be used to speed up the process of study identification.
  • Source: Booth A, Papaioannou D, Sutton A. Systematic Approaches to a Successful Literature Review. London: Sage Publications Ltd; 2012.

ENVIRONMENTAL SCAN

  • Definition: Environmental scanning focuses on the identification of emerging issues, situations, and potential pitfalls that may affect an organization’s future. … The information is used for planning and decision making.
  • Source: Albright K. Environmental Scanning: Radar for Success. Information Management Journal. 2004; May/June:38-44. Available from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/9dc6/f34546750bdd46c1eed333c562b898ac1b37.pdf

EVALUATE

  • Definition: To use judgment to determine the value of an item with respect to a specific goal, e.g. “I want to know whether my agency is delivering best value”.
  • Source: Russell-Rose T, Makri S, A Model of Consumer Search Behaviour. In Wilson M, Russell Rose T, Larsen B, Kalbach J, (eds) Proceedings of the 2nd European Workshop on Human-Computer Interaction and Information Retrieval. Nijmegen, The Netherlands, August 25, 2012. Available from: https://isquared.wordpress.com/2012/09/18/a-model-of-consumer-search-behaviour/

EXHAUST

EXPLORE

  • Definition: To investigate an item or data set for the purpose of knowledge discovery, e.g. “Find useful stuff on my subject topic”.
  • Source: Russell-Rose T, Makri S, A Model of Consumer Search Behaviour. In Wilson M, Russell Rose T, Larsen B, Kalbach J, (eds) Proceedings of the 2nd European Workshop on Human-Computer Interaction and Information Retrieval. Nijmegen, The Netherlands, August 25, 2012. Available from: https://isquared.wordpress.com/2012/09/18/a-model-of-consumer-search-behaviour/

FACTUAL SEARCH

  • See Quick / Ready Reference Search

FACTUAL QUESTIONS

  • Definition: Confirm a fact or answer a single question with a fact (=ready reference)
  • Source: Carter D, Janes J. Unobtrusive Data Analysis of Digital Reference Questions and Service at the Internet Public Library: An Exploratory Study. Library Trends. 2000;49( 2): 251-265

FIELD LABELS / TAGS

FILE STRUCTURE TACTICS

  • Definition: Techniques used by searchers to thread one's way through the file structure of the information facility to desired file, source, or information within source….All indexing and classification systems provide a structure; the interest here is in the fact of the structure, not in the specific character of that structure. It is seen that the tactics, though they deal with threading one's way through the file structure, do so independently of particular systems of information organization.
  • Source: Bates M. Information Search Tactics. Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 1979;30: 205-214. Available from: http://pages.gseis.ucla.edu/faculty/bates/articles/Information%20Search%20Tactics.html

FILTER - SEARCH

  • Definition: A generic term for any collection of search terms designed to optimize retrieval from a bibliographical database. Such terms may be topical (ie. related to the subject content of items to be retrieved) or methodological (pertaining the methodology of retrieved items).
  • Source: Booth A, Papaioannou D, Sutton A. Systematic Approaches to a Successful Literature Review. London: Sage Publications Ltd; 2012

FILTER - METHODOLOGICAL

  • Definition: Standardized search strategies designed to retrieve studies of a particular methodology type.
  • Source: Booth A, Papaioannou D, Sutton A. Systematic Approaches to a Successful Literature Review. London: Sage Publications Ltd; 2012.

FIX

GREY LITERATURE

  • Definition: “Grey literature stands for manifold document types produced on all levels of government, academics, business and industry in print and electronic formats that are protected by intellectual property rights, of sufficient quality to be collected and preserved by library holdings or institutional repositories, but not controlled by commercial publishers i.e., where publishing is not the primary activity of the producing body.”

HEDGE

  • See Filter - search

HITS

  • Definition: In information retrieval, the number of records retrieved from a database that are relevant to the query. In some databases, the number of hits is indicated before records are displayed, to enable the user to modify the search statement before viewing search results. When zero hits are retrieved, the reason may be the misspelling of one or more search terms, a query that contains syntactical or semantic errors, or indexing of sources under a synonym or related term. Compare with false drop.
  • Source: Reitz JM; Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science (ODLIS). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, LLC; 2017. Available from: http://www.abc-clio.com/ODLIS/odlis_a.aspx.

INFORMATION RETRIEVAL

  • Definition: A set of techniques and procedures used to specify and identify relevant items from a data source such as an electronic database.
  • Source: Booth A, Papaioannou D, Sutton A. Systematic Approaches to a Successful Literature Review. London: Sage Publications Ltd; 2012

INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM

  • Definition: IR systems consist of sets of data or information, one or more indexes, a query interface, a search system and a results interface. There is some confusion between data retrieval, document retrieval, information and text retrieval — each has its own literature, theory and praxis.
  • Source: Giustini D.HLWIKI International. Available from: http://hlwiki.slais.ubc.ca/index.php/Information_retrieval [Accessed 15th June 2016]

ITERATIVE

  • Definition: Characterized by repeating. (back and forth)
  • Source: Little W. Fowler HW. Coulson J.Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1973.

ITERATIVE (SEARCH) PROCESS

  • Definition: A search for information in which the researcher or investigator repeatedly poses questions until an answer or solution is found.
  • Source: Reitz JM. Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science (ODLIS). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, LLC; 2017. Available from: http://www.abc-clio.com/ODLIS/odlis_a.aspx.

JURISDICTIONAL REVIEW

  • Definition: Reviews that seek to provide an overview of policies, practices, legislations or regulations as observed through a range of jurisdictions. There are no guidelines available for the conduct of jurisdictional reviews. While jurisdictional reviews can answer the question, “what are others doing”, they usually do not consider the effectiveness of interventions.
  • Source: Hayden J, Babineau J, Killian L, Martin-Misener R, Carter A, Jensen J, Zygmunt A. Collaborative emergency centres: Rapid knowledge synthesis. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Nova Scotia Cochrane Resource Centre; 2012.

KEYWORD

  • Definition: The words and phrases that searchers enter into search systems to express their queries. The keywords users enter don't necessarily arise from a facet analysis and logical combination, and they vary in form, ranging from keywords and phrases, to sentences, questions and even whole paragraphs.
  • Source: Markey K. Online Searching, A Guide to finding quality information efficiently and effectively. Lanhan, Ohio: Rowman and Littlefield, 2015.

LITERATURE REVIEW

  • Definition: A systematic, explicit, and reproducible method for identifying, evaluating, and synthesizing the existing body of completed and recorded work produced by researchers, scholars, and practitioners.
  • Source: Fink, A. Conducting Research Literature Reviews: From the Internet to Paper. 2nd ed. London: Sage Publications Ltd; 2005.

LITERATURE SEARCH

  • Definition: A literature search is a systematic and explicit approach to the identification, retrieval, and bibliographic management of independent studies (usually drawn from published sources) for the purpose of locating information on a topic, synthesizing conclusions, identifying areas for future study, and developing guidelines for clinical practice.
  • Source: Auston I, Cahn MA, Selden CR. Literature Search Methods for the Development of Clinical Practice Guidelines. Forum Methodology Conference 13-16 December 1992 Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Office of the Forum for Quality and Effectiveness in Health Care; 1992. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nichsr/litsrch.html

LOCATE

  • Definition: To find a specific (possibly known) item, e.g. “Find my reading list items”.
  • Source: Russell-Rose T, Makri S, A Model of Consumer Search Behaviour. In Wilson M, Russell Rose T, Larsen B, Kalbach J, (eds) Proceedings of the 2nd European Workshop on Human-Computer Interaction and Information Retrieval. Nijmegen, The Netherlands, August 25, 2012. Available from: https://isquared.wordpress.com/2012/09/18/a-model-of-consumer-search-behaviour/

METADATA

  • Definition: Metadata is structured information that describes, explains, locates, or otherwise makes it easier to retrieve, use, or manage an information resource. Metadata is often called data about data or information about information. The term metadata is used differently in different communities. In the library environment, metadata is commonly used for any formal scheme of resource description, applying to any type of object, digital or non-digital. Traditional library cataloging is a form of metadata; MARC 21 and the rule sets used with it, such as AACR2, are metadata standards. Other metadata schemes have been developed to describe various types of textual and non-textual objects including published books, electronic documents, archival finding aids, art objects, educational and training materials, and scientific datasets.
  • Source: ANSI/NISO/ (2004). Understanding Metadata. http://www.niso.org/publications/press/UnderstandingMetadata.pdf

MONITOR

  • Definition: Maintain awareness of the status of an item for purposes of management or control, e.g. “Alert me to new resources in my area”.
  • Source: Russell-Rose T, Makri S, A Model of Consumer Search Behaviour. In Wilson M, Russell Rose T, Larsen B, Kalbach J, (eds) Proceedings of the 2nd European Workshop on Human-Computer Interaction and Information Retrieval. Nijmegen, The Netherlands, August 25, 2012. Available from: https://isquared.wordpress.com/2012/09/18/a-model-of-consumer-search-behaviour/

MONITORING TACTICS

NEIGHBOUR

OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

  • Definition: A research design that requires investigators do not intervene or control variables rather, they simply observe the course of events. Changes or differences in one characteristic (e.g. whether or not people received the intervention of interest) are studied in relation to changes or differences in other characteristic(s) (e.g. death), without action by the investigator. There is a greater risk of bias in observational studies than in experimental studies.
  • Source: The Cochrane Collaboration. Archive of the old Cochrane Community site, Glossary. Available from: http://community-archive.cochrane.org/glossary/5#lettero Accessed 12 June 2016

PARALLEL

PATTERN

PEARL GROWING

  • Definition: The process of identifying a known, highly relevant article (the pearl) as a means to isolate terms on which a search can subsequently be based.
  • Source: Booth A, Papaioannou D, Sutton A. Systematic Approaches to a Successful Literature Review. London: Sage Publications Ltd; 2012

PINPOINT

PHRASE

  • Definition: Grammatically speaking, two or more words that convey a single concept or thought or that constitute a part of a sentence that does not contain a subject or predicate. An adjectival phrase is a noun modified by one or more adjectives (examples: digital archives and small press). In a prepositional phrase, two words are joined by a preposition (examples: gone to press and out of print).
  • Source: Reitz JM; Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science (ODLIS). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, LLC; 2017. Available from: http://www.abc-clio.com/ODLIS/odlis_a.aspx.

PRISMA FLOW DIAGRAM GENERATOR

  • Definition: A PRISMA Flow Diagram, described in the PRISMA Statement is a graphical representation of the flow of citations reviewed in the course of a Systematic Review. By using the recommended form one can produce a diagram easily in any of 10 different publication formats. The diagram is produced using the Open Source dot program (part of graphviz), and this tool provides the source for one's diagram if further tweaking is needed.
  • Source: Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG; The PRISMA Group. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta- Analyses: The PRISMA Statement. PLoS Med. 2009; 6:7. Available from: e1000097. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed1000097 http://www.prisma-statement.org/documents/PRISMA%202009%20flow%20diagram.pdf

PROXIMITY OPERATOR

  • Definition: A special kind of Boolean operator used to search for occurrences of words adjacent to or within a certain number of words from another word (or group of words).
  • Source: Bramer W, Giustini D, Kramer B. Comparing the coverage, recall, and precision of searches for 120 systematic reviews in Embase, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar: a prospective study. Systematic Reviews Journal. 2016; 5: 39. Available from: doi: 10.1186/s13643-016-0215-7 PMCID: PMC4772334 http://systematicreviewsjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13643-016-0215-7

QUERY

  • Definition: A request submitted as input in a search of an online catalog or bibliographic database to retrieve records or documents relevant to the user's information need(s). Some information storage and retrieval systems allow queries to be submitted in natural language, but most systems require the user to formulate search statements in the artificial language used for indexing and in syntax acceptable to the search software. The query is an approximation of the information need that provides the impetus for the search.
  • Source: Reitz JM; Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science (ODLIS). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, LLC; 2017. Available from: http://www.abc-clio.com/ODLIS/odlis_a.aspx.

QUICK EDUCATION

  • Definition: To provide a client with a dozen or so items which constitute a good introduction to a field of interest (e.g. published lit review plus 4 current articles)
  • Source: Marcia J. Bates, “Rigorous Systematic Bibliography.” Reference Quarterly 16 (Fall 1976): 7-26.

QUICK / READY REFERENCE SEARCH

  • Definition: To search for simple facts and/or figures.
  • Source: Hanson CW. Introduction to Science-Information Work. London: Aslib; 1971. pp.135.

RE-ARRANGE

RECORD (NOUN)

  • Definition: An account of something, put down in writing, usually as a means of documenting facts for legal or historical purposes. Also, to make such an account. In a narrower sense, a formal document in which the content is presented in a named set of standardized data elements treated as a single unit, for example, a certificate, deed, lease, etc. In archives, a document created or received, and subsequently maintained, by an institution, organization, or individual in the transaction of official or personal business or in fulfillment of a legal obligation.
  • Source: Reitz JM; Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science (ODLIS). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, LLC; 2017. Available from: http://www.abc-clio.com/ODLIS/odlis_a.aspx.

RECORD (VERB)

REDUCE

RELATE

RELEVANCE / RELEVANCY

  • Definition: The extent to which information retrieved in a search of a library collection or other resource, such as an online catalog or bibliographic database, is judged by the user to be applicable to ("about") the subject of the query. Relevance depends on the searcher's subjective perception of the degree to which the document fulfills the information need, which may or may not have been expressed fully or with precision in the search statement. Measures of the effectiveness of information retrieval, such as precision and recall, depend on the relevance of search results. Compare with pertinence.
  • Source: Reitz JM; Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science (ODLIS). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, LLC; 2017. Available from: http://www.abc-clio.com/ODLIS/odlis_a.aspx.

RESPACE

RESPELL

SCOPE CREEP

  • Definition: Uncontrolled changes over time to a project’s aims, direction, scale and / or timescale and, more specifically the gradual, unchecked expansion of the project’s objectives.
  • Source: Saunders, L. The policy and organizational context for commissioned research. British Educational Research Association. London: TLRP.29-11-2010 http://www.bera.ac.uk/commissioning-and-consuming-research-in-education/

SCOPING SEARCH

  • Definition: A literature search that seeks to determine rapidly and efficiently the scale of a predefined topic to inform the subsequent conduct of a review.
  • Source: Booth A, Papaioannou D, Sutton A. Systematic Approaches to a Successful Literature Review. London: Sage Publications Ltd; 2012

SEARCH - FOR A FEW REPRESENTATIVE… TEXTS

  • Definition: Unless stated otherwise, treat this as a request for from two to four representative, summarizing or introductory texts, probably review articles or relevant chapters in recent books at the technical level appropriate to the individual enquirer. Possibly out of date terminology.
  • Source: Hanson CW. Introduction to Science-Information Work. London: Aslib; 1971. pp.135.

SEARCH COMMAND

See Command

SEARCH ELEMENT

  • Definition: meaningful component of a question. the part of a search statement representing a concept.
  • Source: Wichor Bramer, ErasmusMC Rotterdam, Medical Library, Faculty Member. Personal communication to Lori Leger.

SEARCH FRAMEWORK

  • Definition: To frame the search concepts into search terms to create an answerable question.
  • Source: McGowan, J., et al.. (2010). An Evidence Based Checklist for the Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies (PRESS EBC).EBLIP North America, 5, Mar. 2010.

SEARCH OPERATIONS /OPERATORS

  • Definition: A reserved word or symbol used to specify the relationship between two entities being searched for, except in the case of a ranging operator, where only one entity is involved. Operators include: Boolean operators: the logical operators And, Or, Not, indicate that a Boolean function is to be performed on two search terms or search elements.... Proximity operators specify the relative position and distance between two search terms in the term to be retrieved. Ranging operators indicate that all values related quantitatively to the immediately following term are to be retrieved.
  • Source: ANSI/NISO. Z39.58 Common Command Language for Online Interactive Information Retrieval. Bethesda, Maryland: NISO Press; 1992. Available from: http://www.niso.org/apps/group_public/download.php/6567/Common%20Command%20Language%20for%20Online%20Interactive%20Information%20Retrieval.pdf

SEARCH RESULT

  • Definition: The references (or the number thereof) provided by a certain database that fulfill the criteria of a search strategy Comparing the coverage, recall, and precision of searches for 120 systematic reviews in Embase, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar: a prospective study
  • Source: Bramer W, Giustini D, Kramer B. Comparing the coverage, recall, and precision of searches for 120 systematic reviews in Embase, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar: a prospective study. Systematic Reviews Journal. 2016; 5: 39. Available from: doi: 10.1186/s13643-016-0215-7 PMCID: PMC4772334 http://systematicreviewsjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13643-016-0215-7

SEARCH STRATEGY

  • Definition: A search strategy is a structured organisation of terms used to search a database. The search strategy shows how these terms combine in order to retrieve the best results. Different databases work in different ways, so you need to adapt your search strategy for each of the databases you use.
  • Source: Leeds University Library Developing your search strategy - https://library.leeds.ac.uk/researcher-literature-search-strategy

SEARCH TACTIC

SEARCH TERM

  • Definition: A word or phrase representing one of the main concepts in a research topic, used alone or in combination with other terms in a search statement, to query an online catalog, bibliographic database, or search engine and retrieve relevant information. A search term can be a keyword or phrase supplied by the user, an authorized subject heading or descriptor selected from a prescribed list, or a word or phrase found in a thesaurus, for example, The Contemporary Thesaurus of Search Terms and Synonyms by Sara Knapp (Oryx, 2000).
  • Source: Reitz JM; Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science (ODLIS). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, LLC; 2017. Available from: http://www.abc-clio.com/ODLIS/odlis_a.aspx.

SELECT

SENSITIVITY

  • Definition: A diagnostic term, appropriated by information retrieval, to refer to the capacity of a search strategy to identify all relevant items (i.e. not missing any relevant items) on a particular topic.
  • Source: Booth A, Papaioannou D, Sutton A. Systematic Approaches to a Successful Literature Review. London: Sage Publications Ltd; 2012

SOURCE

  • Definition: Any document that provides information sought by a writer, researcher, library user, or person searching an online catalog or bibliographic database. Also refers to a document that provides information copied or reproduced in another document, for example, a quotation or excerpt. In literature, the story, legend, or work that inspires or provides elements of plot or characterization for another literary work, for example, the chronicles of English history on which William Shakespeare based some of his history plays.
  • Source: Reitz JM; Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science (ODLIS). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, LLC; 2017. Available from: http://www.abc-clio.com/ODLIS/odlis_a.aspx.

SPECIFIC DETAIL SEARCH

  • Definition: To select only the precise information wanted. (The same as the Level I search noted below - To search for simple facts and/or figures.)
  • Source: Hanson CW. Introduction to Science-Information Work. London: Aslib; 1971. pp.135.

SPECIFICITY

  • Definition: Specificity is one of the crucial concepts in systems of information access. Almost all systems of classification and indexing require that descriptions assigned to materials be as specific as the content of the materials and as the indexing system itself allows.
  • Source: Bates M. Information search tactics. Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 1979;30: 205-214. Available from: http://pages.gseis.ucla.edu/faculty/bates/articles/Information%20Search%20Tactics.html

SPECIFY

STRATEGY

  • See Search Strategy

STRETCH

SUB

SUBJECT HEADING

  • Definition: The most specific word or phrase that describes the subject, or one of the subjects, of a work, selected from a list of preferred terms (controlled vocabulary) and assigned as an added entry in the bibliographic record to serve as an access point in the library catalog. A subject heading may be subdivided by the addition of subheadings (example: Libraries--History--20th century) or include a parenthetical qualifier for semantic clarification, as in Mice (Computers).
  • Source: Reitz JM; Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science (ODLIS). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, LLC; 2017. Available from: http://www.abc-clio.com/ODLIS/odlis_a.aspx.

SUBJECT HEDGE

  • Definition: Subject hedges are lists of terms related to a particular subject used to supplement or replace controlled vocabulary and supporting documentation. Subject hedges can greatly improve the quality and accuracy of a mediated search on MEDLINE or any other database.
  • Source: Klatt MJ. An aid for total quality searching: developing a hedge book. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association [Internet]. 1994 [cited 7 February 2014] 82(10):43841, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC225972/pdf/mlab00109-0098.pdf

SUPER

SURVEY

SYNTAX

  • Definition: Every search engine has its own syntax for submitting the search request. In most cases, the search request syntax is not obvious and users typically have to refer to search engine documentation or help topics for the correct search request syntax supported by that particular search engine. For example, some search engines support syntax operators, keywords, or characters such as “+”, “−”, “and”, “or”, “near”, “before” etc. for submitting a search request term.
  • Source: Amarender Kethireddy User interface and method for providing search query syntax help US 7062711 B2 Sharp Laboratories Of America, Inc. https://www.google.com/patents/US7062711

SYNTHESIZE

  • Definition: Synthesis involves “the contextualization and integration of research findings of individual research studies within the larger body of knowledge on the topic” For example: the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews provides access to systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of treatments completed by groups of the international Cochrane Collaboration. Authors find, appraise and synthesize evidence from studies (RCTs). Conclusions about treatment effectiveness are summarized; summaries provide a view of the evidence so that others see patterns and trends in the data.
  • Source: Canadian Institutes for Health Research. A guide to knowledge syntheses. [Internet] Ottawa, ON, Canada: Canadian Institutes for Health Research; 8Apr 2010. < http://www.cihr-irsc.gc.ca/e/41382.html>

SYSTEMATIC

  • Definition: Done or acting according to a fixed plan or system; methodical:‘a systematic search of the whole city’ For example: the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews provides access to systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) completed by groups of the international Cochrane Collaboration. Authors find, appraise and synthesize evidence from studies (RCTs). Conclusions about effectiveness are summarized.
  • Source: Oxford Dictionaries http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/systematic

SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

  • Definition: A review of a clearly formulated question that uses systematic and explicit methods to identify, select, and critically appraise relevant research, and to collect and analyze data from the studies that are included in the review. Statistical methods (meta-analysis) may or may not be used to analyze and summarize the results of the included studies. A systematic review differs from a traditional literature review in that a literature review only describes and appraises previous work, and but does not specify the methods by which the reviewed studies were identified, selected, or evaluated.
  • Source: Rychetnik, Hawe, Waters, Barratt, & Frommer, A glossary for evidence based public health. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2004;58:538-545. http://jech.bmj.com/content/58/7/538.full

SYSTEMATIC SEARCH

  • Definition: A thorough search of a broad range of sources found from source lists of similar topic reviews to identify relevant studies to your research question. 5 stages of the search include: scoping search, the search, bibliographic searching, verification (ie consultation with experts), documenting the search. A thorough, objective and reproducible search of a range of sources to ID as many relevant studies as possible within resource limits.
  • Source: Cochrane Collaboration. (2012). Chapter 6: Searching for studies. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. Available at: http://handbook.cochrane.org

TERM

  • See Search term

THEORETICAL SATURATION

  • Definition: The point within an interpretive review at which all data can be coded into an existing category; new categories are not emerging, and the existing category structure appears stable or secure.
  • Source: Booth A, Papaioannou D, Sutton A. Systematic Approaches to a Successful Literature Review. London: Sage Publications Ltd; 2012

THESAURUS

  • Definition: A list of words showing similarities, differences, dependencies and other relationships to each other; and mapping words used by database users to the actual words utilized by the constructors of the database.
  • Source: Booth A, Papaioannou D, Sutton A. Systematic Approaches to a Successful Literature Review. London: Sage Publications Ltd; 2012

TOPIC

  • Definition: A subject for research or discussion. The first step in a library research project is the formulation of a workable topic statement. As a literature search progresses, the topic may require refinement (change of specificity or focus), depending on the amount of published information available and the time constraints of the researcher. See also: search strategy.
  • Source: Reitz JM; Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science (ODLIS). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, LLC; 2017. Available from: http://www.abc-clio.com/ODLIS/odlis_a.aspx.

TRACE

TRUNCATION

  • Definition: A truncation symbol is a character (determined by the database, such as an asterisk or a dollar sign) which can be substituted, when searching databases or search engines, for various endings of the stem of a word (e.g. organi* for organization, organisation, organized, organised).
  • Source: Booth A, Papaioannou D, Sutton A. Systematic Approaches to a Successful Literature Review. London: Sage Publications Ltd; 2012

VARY

  • Definition: To inform new research or appraise research. (To see what has been done, what gaps exist, to choose a research area. To inform research design, analysis, discussion and conclusions with existing research methods, findings, theories, frame-works. To synthesize or critically evaluate existing research
  • Source: Bates M. Information search tactics. Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 1979;30: 205-214. Available from: http://pages.gseis.ucla.edu/faculty/bates/articles/Information%20Search%20Tactics.html

VERIFY

  • Definition: To confirm that an item meets some specific, objective criterion, e.g. “See the correct price for singles and deals”.
  • Source: Russell-Rose T, Makri S, A Model of Consumer Search Behaviour. In Wilson M, Russell Rose T, Larsen B, Kalbach J, (eds) Proceedings of the 2nd European Workshop on Human-Computer Interaction and Information Retrieval. Nijmegen, The Netherlands, August 25, 2012. Available from: https://isquared.wordpress.com/2012/09/18/a-model-of-consumer-search-behaviour/

WEBSITE

  • Definition: A group of related, interlinked Web pages installed on a Web server and accessible 24 hours a day to Internet users equipped with browser software. Most Web sites are created to represent the online presence of a company, organization, or institution or are the work of a group or individual. The main page or welcome screen, called the homepage, usually displays the title of the site, the name of the person (or persons) responsible for creating and maintaining it, and date of last update. Also spelled Website and website.
  • Source:Reitz JM; Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science (ODLIS). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, LLC; 2017. Available from: http://www.abc-clio.com/ODLIS/odlis_a.aspx.

WEIGH

Search types: Definitions and examples

Search Level I

  • Definition: To bridge an information gap with a needed fact (e.g. "What is the current best practice for Newborn Blood Spot Screening?").
  • Source: working definition as of 2017-03, Canadian Search Standards Working Group.

Search Level II

  • Definition: To increase an individual's own understanding of an issue (e.g. "What are the leading cancer research organizations, including their structure and their success?").
  • Source: working definition as of 2017-03, Canadian Search Standards Working Group.

Search Level III

  • Definition: To gather content for education such as lectures, workshops, presentation (e.g. "Breast density legislation and breast cancer screening"). To support a decision to purchase a product or resource (e.g. Are mailed FIT tests an effective means to increase awareness of colorectal cancer screening?"). To inform a student assignment such as a term-paper or an essay (e.g. "What are the Current Smoking Cessation Strategies among Aboriginal Youth"?). To write an internal report or other internal document or policy (e.g. "Identify and implement a new clinical information system such as a continuing care portfolio".). To find information to apply immediately for an individual patient's care (e.g. "What is the correct position of restraints or belts for brain-injured patients"?). For non clinical organizational planning (e.g. "Developing a facilitator competency framework to lead healthcare change"). To help inform the creation of patient education (e.g. "Enhancing patient engagement in chronic disease self-management").
  • Source: working definition as of 2017-03, Canadian Search Standards Working Group.

Search Level IV

  • Definition: To develop clinical guidelines (e.g. "For diagnosis, staging, treatment, and follow-up of cancer"). To inform a publication - academic or research journal or grey literature (e.g. "Combined open and endovascular treatment of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms"). To inform research proposals (e.g. "CIHR grant application").
  • Source: Definition based on other 4 search level definitions & Watanabe AS, McCart G, Shimomura S, Kayser S. Systematic approach to drug information requests. American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy. 1975;32(12):1282-5.
  • Source: working definition as of 2017-03, Canadian Search Standards Working Group.

Search Level V

  • Definition: To inform research to support a systematic review, meta-analysis or HTA etc. (e.g. "What are the benefits of exercise for prostate cancer survivors?").
  • Source: working definition as of 2017-03, Canadian Search Standards Working Group.
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