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Melville Louis Kossuth (Melvil) Dewey (1851 — 1931), American librarian, educator and celebrity, is known the world over for devising the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system (now in its 23rd edition). Born in Adams Center, New York, he attended rural schools and felt his destiny was to become an education reformer. He attended Amherst College in Amherst Massachusetts and graduated with a bachelor of arts degree in 1874 and a master of arts degree in 1877. After his graduation, Amherst hired Dewey to reclassify the university library's monographic collection. For two years, Dewey devised a scheme that superimposed a system of decimals on structures of knowledge that borrowed considerably from Sir Francis Bacon and William Torrey Harris. His decimal-based cataloguing system (still used around the world today to classify books) has made him one of the best known librarians, perhaps of all time.
Dewey pioneered all kinds of changes in librarianship and helped it to develop from a vocation to a profession. Among his many accomplishments were his promotion of women in librarianship and founding of the American Library Association (ALA). In 1876, Dewey copyrighted the DDC and moved to Boston where he founded and edited The Library Journal until 1981. From 1883 to 1888 he was the chief librarian at Columbia University Library, and from 1888 to 1906 was the director of the New York State Library. From 1888 to 1900, he was secretary and executive officer of the University of the State of New York. In 1895, Dewey founded the Lake Placid Club in Lake Placid, New York. He and his son Godfrey were active in arranging the Winter Olympics as he was chairman of the New York State Winter Olympics Committee. In 1926, he moved to Florida and established a southern branch of the Lake Placid Club (where some of his unorthodox and very racist views created problems for him). He died in Lake Placid, Florida in 1931. Dewey is a member of the American Library Association's Hall of Fame.
Dewey is widely-regarded as one of the most important figures in library education. He is often referred to as The Father of Modern Librarianship for his contributions to educating librarians. In 1887, he inaugurated the School of Library Economy at Columbia which in 1889 moved to Albany where it was known as New York State Library School. Dewey was appointed deputy director there and faculty debates about the field's future were commonplace. The initial class numbered ten students and doubled in 1889 with a "feminine presence [that] represented a remarkable innovation [in a male-dominated field]". Two years later, graduates were given diplomas in library economy and could continue in the discipline if they wished. In his first Circular of Information published in 1884, he outlined the library's responsibilities for "reference services" and listed members of the "reference department" in his report. Dewey called reference services the "most important single department" in a library. Although many remember Dewey because of the DDC, he was a major figure in promoting the public library movement and the notion of individual reader assistance in university libraries.
'A dynamic figure'
Dewey had a number of obsessions apart from his desire to organize information; one was spelling. His chief complaint of English was its poor phonemic orthography (words are not written how they are spoken). He founded the Spelling Reform Association (spelling his name "Melvil Dui") and the American Metric Bureau. His idea was to simplify English language spelling to the extent that new principles could be applied to the second edition of the Dewey Decimal Classification; the idea of a new metric system would also have an impact on standardized cards produced by the Library Bureau. In terms of his published work, apart from the Dewey Decimal Classification scheme, Dewey was known as a tireless worker and wrote a number of books and regular editorials in the Library Journal. He was described by colleagues as "upright, tenacious, loyal with modern managing gifts" and "busily but quietly working". His "dynamic character" was also noted and he was widely seen as a tireless entertainer who made an indelible impact on the library profession.