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- This entry is out of date, and will not be updated, February 2018
See also Digital reputation management | Enterprise 2.0 | Digital sandbox for health care managers | Finding health information for British Columbians | Social media in clinical trials
Social networking through the use of Internet-based and other web media has fundamentally changed how health administrators manage services, patient and donor relations, marketing and promotion. The use of Facebook, LinkedIn, blogs and other social media tools can empower health organizations and build stronger relationships in the community. Social media platforms also provide ways to engage in global conversations about health care, emerging issues of importance and even emerging health threats such as H1N1 (Human Swine Flu) in Canada and other public health concerns. Increasingly, businesses and governmental organizations are using social media as business support tools for increased brand development and recognition, low-cost promotional programs and marketing opportunities. These business objectives are enabled by a strategic blend of reputation-building, knowledge sharing and presence- building affordances (among others) of social media (Kietzmann et al., 2011).
When health consumers have a negative experience in the health care system, where do they go to register a complaint? In British Columbia, patients are required to file a formal complaint with the BC College of Physicians and Surgeons. However, many patients are turning to social media to register their opinions. Even Twitter is a source of information that can impact the reputation of a physician, health agency or hospital. For social media managers, monitoring social media is critical. It may be important to know how to do searches for information in the social media spaces because some comments have greater weight depending on where they originated and whether they were syndicated. Some health organizations are developing relationships with prominent bloggers and Twitter users to get them to share their opinions and to manage feedback mechanisms for organizations.
Evidence of online education's benefits
- Bergeron B. Online CME options: an update. J Med Pract Manage. 2006;22(1):55-7.
- Cook DA, Dupras DM. A practical guide to developing effective web-based learning. J Gen Intern Med. 2004;19:698-707.
- Cook DA, Levinson AJ, Garside S, Dupras DM, Erwin PJ, Montori VM. Internet-based learning in the health professionals: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2008;300:1181-96.
- Curran VR, Fleet LJ. A comparative evaluation of the effect of Internet-based CME delivery format on satisfaction, knowledge and confidence. BMC Med Educ. 2010;10:10
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- Greenhalgh T. Transferability of principles of evidence based medicine to improve educational quality: systematic review and case study of an online course in primary health care. BMJ. 2003;326(7381):142-5.
- McLean RA. Developing an on-line course in health economics: if I had known then what I know now. J Health Adm Educ. 2005;22(1):49-66.
- Sandars J, Schroter S. Web 2.0 technologies for undergraduate and postgraduate medical education: an online survey. Postgrad Med J. 2007;83(986):759-62.
- Scheufele EL, Blesius C, Lester WT. Facilitating group learning and dialogue between neighboring academic institutions using a collaborative web application framework. AMIA Annu Symp Proc; 2007.
- US Department of Education. Evaluation of online learning: a meta-analysis and review of online learning studies. Washington DC, 2009. US Department of Education, Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy Development. Evaluation of evidence-based practices in online learning: a meta-analysis and review of online learning studies. Washington DC, 2009.
Short course examples
Types of web 2.0 use in healthcare
The following are examples discussed in the medical literature:
|| Case example in academic literature
| Staying informed
|| Used to stay informed of latest developments in a particular field
|| RSS, Podcasts and search tools (BMJ, 2006)
|| All (medical professionals and public)
| Medical education
|| Use for professional development for doctors, and public health promotion for by public health professionals and the general public
|| How podcasts can be used on the move to increase total available educational time (Sandars, 2007) or the applications of these tools to public health (Crespo, 2007)
|| All (medical professionals and public)
| Collaboration and practice
|| Web 2.0 tools use in daily practice for medical professionals to find information and make decisions
|| Google searches revealed the correct diagnosis in 15 out of 26 cases (58%, 95% confidence interval 38% to 77%) in a 2005 study (Tan, 2006)
|| Doctors, Nurses
| Managing a particular disease
|| Patients who use search tools to find out information about a particular condition
|| Shown that patients have different patterns of usage depending on if they are newly diagnosed or managing a severe long-term illness. Long-term patients are more likely to connect to a community in Health 2.0 (Ferguson, 2007)
| Sharing data for research
|| Completing patient-reported outcomes and aggregating the data for personal and scientific research
|| Disease specific communities for patients with rare conditions aggregate data on treatments, symptoms, and outcomes to improve their decision making ability and carry out scientific research such as observational trials (Frost, 2008)
|| All (medical professionals and public)
Social media managers
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- Abraham J. Selecting a provider: what factors influence patients' decision making? J Healthcare Manage. 2011;56(2):99-114.
- Adams SA. Blog-based applications and health information: two case studies that illustrate important questions for Consumer Health Informatics research. Int J Med Inf. 2010;79:e89-e96.
- Bacigalupe G. Is there a role for social technologies in collaborative healthcare? Families systems & health. 2011;29(1):1-14.
- Barras C. Innovation: Is the future of healthcare online? New Scientist. July 2009.
- Bleicher P. Health 2.0: do it yourself doctoring. Appl Clin Trials. 2008;17(10):38-42.
- Bos L, Marsh A, Carroll D, Gupta S, Rees M. Patient 2.0 empowerment. Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Semantic Web & Web Services SWWS08
- Bottles K. Patients, doctors and health 2.0 tools export. Physician Executive Journal. 10 July 2009.
- Boulos MNK, Maramba I, Wheeler S. Wikis, blogs and podcasts: a new generation of Web-based tools for virtual collaborative clinical practice and education. BMC Med Educ. 2006;6:41.
- Boulos MNK, Wheeler S. The emerging web 2.0 social software: an enabling suite of sociable technologies in health and health care education. Health Info Libr J. 2007;24(1):2-23.
- Burke TR, Goldstein G. A legal primer for social media. Mark Health Serv. 2010;30(3):30-1.
- Burrus D. Social networks in the workplace: the risk and opportunity of business 2.0. Strategy & Leadership. 2010;38(4):50-53.
- Cain J. Social media in health care: The case for organizational policy and employee education. Am J Health-System Pharmacy. 2011;68(11):1036-1040.
- Chou WY, Hunt YM, Beckjord EB, Moser RP, Hesse BW. Social media use in the United States: implications for health communication. J Med Internet Res. 2009;11(4):e48.
- Cummins J. Few Hospitals Use Social Media Effectively, Says Study. Health Leaders Media. 2010.
- Currie D. Public health leaders using social media to convey emergencies: new tools a boon. Nation's Health. 2009;39(6):1-10. http://thenationshealth.aphapublications.org/content/39/6.toc
- Domingo MC. Managing healthcare through social networks. Computer. 2010;43(7):20-25.
- Eysenbach G. Medicine 2.0: social networking, collaboration, participation, apomediation, and openness. J Med Internet Res. 2008;10(3):e22.
- Eytan T, Benabio J, Golla V, Parikh R, Stein S. Social media and the health system. Perm J. 2011;15(1):71-4.
- Eytan T. Social media are your friends. Interview by John Marcille. Manag Care. 2010;19(9):37-9.
- Friedman L, Gyr H. The changing patient in the digital era: a typology for guiding innovation in healthcare. Int J Innovat Sci. 2010;2(1):39-46.
- Giustini D. How web 2.0 is changing medicine: is a medical wikipedia the next step? BMJ. 2006;333(7582):1283-84.
- Hackworth BA. Health care and social media building relationships via social networks. Academy of Health Care Management Journal. 2010;6(1):
- Holt C. Emerging technologies: web 2.0. Health Information Management J. 2011;40(1):33-35.
- Hughes B, Joshi I, Wareham J. Health 2.0 and medicine 2.0: tensions and controversies in the field. J Med Internet Research. 2008;10(3):e23.
- Kane GC. A multimethod study of information quality in wiki collaboration. ACM Transactions on Management Inf Systems. 2010;1(1)
- Kane GC, Fichman RG. The shoemaker's children: using wikis for information systems teaching. MIS Quarterly. 2009;33(1).
- Kane GC, Fichman RG. Community relations 2.0. Harvard Bus Rev. 2009;87:45-50.
- Kietzmann JH, Hermkens K. Social media? Get serious! Understanding the functional building blocks of social media. Business Horizons. 2011;54(3):241-251.
- Klang M, Nolin J. Disciplining social media: an analysis of social media policies in 26 Swedish municipalities. First Monday. 2011;16;8(1).
- Lagu T, Hannon NS. Patients' evaluations of health care providers in the era of social networking: an analysis of physician-rating websites. J Gen Intern Med. 2010;25(9):942-6.
- Lagu T, Lindenauer PK. Putting the public back in public reporting of health care quality. JAMA. 2010;304(15):1711–1712.
- Lombardi G, Baum N. Health 2.0: how interactive Web sites are changing the healthcare industry. J Med Pract Manage. 2011;26(4):242-4.
- Lupianez-Villanueva F. Opportunities and challenges of web 2.0 within the health care systems: an empirical exploration. Informatics Health Social Care. 2009;34(3):117-126.
- Malvey D, Alderman B, Todd AD. Blogging and the health care manager. Health Care Manag. 2009;28(2):159-64.
- Orsini M. Social media: how home health care agencies can join the chorus of empowered voices. Home Health Care Management & Practice. 2010;22(3):213-217.
- Pearson Social Media Survey. Online Marketing & Research. http://www.slideshare.net/PearsonLearningSolutions/pearson-socialmediasurvey2010
- Pulman A. A patient centred framework for improving LTC quality of life through Web 2.0 technology. Health Informatics Journal. 2010;16(1):15-23.
- Randeree E. Exploring technology impacts of healthcare 2.0 initiatives. Telemed J E Health. 2009;15(3):255-60.
- Rooney K. Consumer-driven health care marketing: using the web to get up close and personal. J Health Care Manage. 2009;54(4):241-251.
- Read K, Giustini D. Social media for health care managers (HCMs): creating a workshop in collaboration with the UBC Centre for Health Care Management. JCHLA / JABSC. 2011;32(3):157-63.
- Seeman N. Inside the health blogosphere: quality, governance and the new innovation leaders. Healthc Q. 2009;12(1):99-106..
- Senadheera V, Warren M, Leitch S. A study into how Australian Banks use Social Media. Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems. 2011. and http://mlaa.com.au/pacis2011/program.htm
- Tan H, Ng JHK. Googling for a diagnosis: use of Google as a diagnostic aid: internet based study. BMJ. 2006;333:1143-5.
- Thaker SI, Nowacki AS, Mehta NB, Edwards AR. How U.S. hospitals use social media. Ann Intern Med. 2011;154(10):707-708.
- Usher W. Types of social media (web 2.0) used by Australian allied health professionals to deliver early twenty-first-century practice promotion and health care. Soc Work Health Care. 2011;50(4):305-29.
- Usher WT. Australian health professionals' social media (web 2.0) adoption trends: early 21st century health care delivery and practice promotion. Austral J Primary Health. 2011.
- Waegemann CP, Claybrook D, Eytan T, McLeod RP, Waldren SE. User-generated care: the integration of internet-based health information. Telemed J E Health. 2010;16(7):764-71.
- Yates D, Wagner C. Factors affecting shapers of organizational wikis. J Amer Soc Inform Sci Technol. 2010;61:543–554.
- Zeng X, Bell PD. Web 2.0: what a health care manager needs to know. Health Care Manage. 2008;27(1):58-70.