|Are you interested in contributing to HLWIKI International? contact
To browse other articles on a range of HSL topics, see the A-Z index.
- 10 July 2017
See also Men's Health Pathfinders | Women's Health Pathfinders | Canadian consumer health information (CHI) portal
Gender issues in health is both an established domain in health care, and one that is emerging due to the demand for diversity and recognition of transitional gender identities. Further this topic examines health conditions and ailments that affect biological female and male (and trans people) differently. In the 21st century, all kinds of questions are being asked about how the genders can be cared for properly across the lifespan as they move through the health care system. Questions about the quality of patient care that they receive, including the elderly and those in ethnic populations, have generated an interest in change, but new mandates by various levels of government have also prompted calls for change. Among several areas in health care, there seems to be growing awareness of the need to initiate better research and studies that identify gender issues in health care delivery, and to recognize and assess disease symptoms in this context. This extends to areas such as the improvement of diagnosis and prognosis based on gender, and gender issues as they affect health generally.
- 4 stars denotes librarian-selected, high quality information. Starred sites are great places to begin your research.
- PubMed Health provides health information written at the college or university-level. MedlinePlus (U.S.) provides access to easy-to-read health information.
- An online or print publication intended to present Canadian health information for Canadians
- Allali F. The impact of clothing style on bone mineral density among postmenopausal women in Morocco: a case-control study. BMC Publ Health. 2006;6:135-41.
- Amaro H, Raj A. On the margin: Power and women’s HIV risk reduction strategies. Sex Roles. 2000;42(7):723-749.
- Autier P. Sex differences in numbers of nevi on young European children: implications for the etiology of cutaneous melanoma. Canc Epidem Biomarkers Prev. 2004;13(12):2003-05.
- Barakat K, Wilkinson P. Acute myocardial infarction in women: Contribution of treatment variables to adverse outcome. Am Heart J. 2000;140(5):740-746.
- Bem SL. Bem sex role inventory: Professional manual. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press; 1981.
- Blum D. Sex on the brain: The biological differences between men and women. New York: Penguin; 1991.
- Bottorff JL, Johnson JL, Irwin LG. Narratives of smoking relapse: the stories of postpartum women. Research in Nursing Health. 2000;23(2):126-34.
- Bottorff JL, Kalaw C, Johnson JL. Couple dynamics during women’s tobacco reduction in pregnancy and postpartum. Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 2006;8(4):499-509.
- Burns N, Grove SK. The practice of nursing research: Conduct, critique and utilization (5e). Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 2005.
- Cahill L. Why sex matters for neuroscience. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2006;7(6):477-84.
- Cenci S. Estrogen deficiency induces bone loss by enhancing T-cell production of TNF-alpha. J Clin Invest. 2000;106(10):1229-37.
- Chauhan VS, Krahn AD, Walker BD. Sex differences in QTc interval and QT dispersion: dynamics during exercise and recovery in healthy subjects. Am Heart J. 2002;144(5):858-64.
- Choi N, Fuqua DR. The structure of the BEM sex role inventory: a summary report of 23 validation studies. Educ Psychol Meas. 2003;63(5):872-887.
- Choudhury KK. Gender inequality and severe malnutrition among children in a remote rural area of Bangladesh. J Health Popul Nutr. 2000;18(3):123-130.
- Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Gender and sex-based analysis in health research: a guide for CIHR peer review committees.
- Cole SR. Test of item-response bias in the CES-D scale: experience from the New Haven EPESE study. J Clin Epidemiol. 2000;53(3):285-289.
- Collins K, Bussell M, Wenzel S. The health of women in the United States: gender differences and gender specific conditions. Washington: Public Health Service’s Office on Women’s Health and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1996.
- Connell R. Gender and power : society, the person, and sexual politics. Cambridge: Polity Press; 1987.
- Damaj MI. Influence of gender and sex hormones on nicotine acute pharmacological effects in mice. J Pharmacol Exp Therapeut. 2001;296(1):132-140.
- Darroch JE, Frost JJ. Women’s interest in vaginal microbicides. Family Planning Perspectives. 1999;31(1), 16-23.
- Diez-Roux AV. Multilevel analysis in public health research. Annu Rev Publ Health. 2000;21(1):171-192.
- Doss BD. The multicultural masculinity ideology scale: validation from three cultural perspectives. Sex Roles. 1998;38(9):719-741.
- Eichler M. Moving toward equality: improving the health of all people: Recognizing and eliminating gender bias in health. Ottawa: Women’s Health Bureau, 2000.
- Eisler RM, Skidmore JR, Ward CH. Masculine gender-role stress: predictor of anger, anxiety, and health-risk behaviors. J Pers Assess. 1988;52(1):133-141.
- Ene-Obong HN, Enugu GI, Uwaegbute AC. Determinants of health and nutritional status of rural Nigerian women. J Health Popul Nutr. 2001;19(4):320-330.
- Ettorre E. Revisioning women and drug use: gender sensitivity, embodiment and reducing harm. Int J Drug Policy. 2004;15(5-6):327-335.
- Farzadegan H. Sex differences in HIV-1 viral load and progression to AIDS. Lancet. 1998;352(9139):1510-1514.
- Fausto-Sterling A. The bare bones of sex: Part 1 — Sex and gender. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society. 2005;30(2):1491-1527.
- Fischman RJ. The use of sex and gender to define and characterize meaningful differences between men and women in National Institutes of Health agenda on women’s health in the 21st century. Washington DC: Office on Research on Women’s Health.
- Gesensway D. Reasons for sex-specific and gender-specific study of health topics. Ann Int Med. 2001;135(10):935-8.
- Gill S, Stockard J. Measuring gender differences: The expressive dimension and critique of androgyny scales. Sex Roles. 1987;17(7):375-400.
- Gray G. How Australia came to have a national women’s health policy. Int J Health Serv: Planning, Administration, Evaluation. 1998;28(1):107-125.
- Greaves L. What are the effects of tobacco policies on vulnerable populations? A better practices review. Can J Public Health. 2006;97(4):310-315.
- Greaves L. CIHR 2000: Sex, gender and women’s health. Vancouver: British Columbia Centre of Excellence in Women’s Health.
- Gregg C. White matter plasticity and enhanced remyelination in the maternal CNS. J Neuroscience. 2007;27(8):1812-23.
- Health Canada. Therapeutic products programme guidelines: Inclusion of women in clinical trials. Ottawa: Health Canada.
- Health Canada. Women’s health strategy. Ottawa: Health Canada.
- Health Canada. Health Canada’s gender-based analysis policy. Ottawa: Health Canada.
- Health Canada. Exploring concepts of gender and health. Ottawa: Women’s Health Bureau.
- Hines M. Brain gender. New York: Oxford University Press; 2004.
- Hood E. Are EDCs blurring issues of gender? Environment Health Perspect. 2005;113(10):670-677.
- Humphries KH. New-onset atrial fibrillation: sex differences in presentation, treatment, and outcome. Circ. 2001;103(19):2365-70.
- Institute of Medicine. Exploring the biological contributions to human health: does sex matter? Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
- Kaffman A. Neurodevelopmental sequelae of postnatal maternal care in rodents: Clinical and research implications of molecular insights. J Child Psych Psychiatr. 2007;48(3/4):224-44.
- Kapral MK. Carotid endarterectomy for women and men. J Wom Health Gend Base Med. 2007;9(9):987-994.
- Karanian JW, Ramwell PW. Effect of gender and sex steroids on the contractile response of canine coronary and renal blood vessels. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1996;27(3):312-319.
- Kuehner C. Gender differences in unipolar depression: An update of epidemiological findings and possible explanations. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 108(3):163-174.
- Lippman A. The inclusion of women in clinical trials: Are we asking the right questions? Women and Health Protection.
- Lotter H. Sexual dimorphism in the control of amebic liver abscess in a mouse model of disease. Infection and Immunity. 2006;74(1):118-124.
- Lynch WJ. Sex differences in vulnerability to drug self-administration. Exp Clin Psychopharmacology. 2006;14(1):34-41.
- Lynch WJ. Biological basis of sex differences in drug abuse: Preclinical and clinical studies. Psychopharmacology. 2002;164(2):121-37.
- Makkar RR. Female gender as a risk factor for torsades de pointes Associated with Cardiovascular Drugs. JAMA. 1993;270:2590–2597.
- Manton KG. Gender differences in cross-sectional and cohort age dependence of cause-specific mortality: United States, 1962–1995. J Gender-Specific Medicine. 2000;3:47–54.
- Miers M. Developing an understanding of gender sensitive care: Exploring concepts and knowledge. J Adv Nursing. 2002;40(1):69-77.
- Ore T. Women in the U.S. construction industry: An analysis of fatal occupational injury experience, 1980 to 1992. Am J Industr Med. 1998;33(3):256-262.
- Orlofsky JL. Relationship between sex role attitudes and personality traits and the Sex Role Behavior Scale-1: a new measure of masculine and feminine role behaviors and interests. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1981;40:927-940.
- Palanza P, Gioiosa L, Parmigiani S. Social stress in mice: Gender differences and effects of estrous cycle and social dominance. Physiol Behav. 2001;73(3):411-420.
- Phillips SP. Defining and measuring gender: a social determinant of health whose time has come. Int J Equity Health. 2005;4:11-15.
- Powers PS. Osteoporosis and eating disorders. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 1999;12:51-57.
- Prescott E. Smoking and risk of myocardial infarction in women and men: Longitudinal population study. BMJ. 1998;316(7137):1043-1047.
- Radloff LS. The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement. 1977;1(3):385-401.
- Rapuri PB. Caffeine intake increases the rate of bone loss in elderly women and interacts with vitamin D receptor genotypes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74(5):694-700.
- Rice TW. Gender role attitudes in the southern United States. Gender and Society. 1995;9(6):744-756.
- Riggs BL. The mechanisms of estrogen regulation of bone resorption. J Clin Invest. 2000;106(10):1203-1204.
- Roberts DCS. The estrous cycle affects cocaine self-administration on a progressive ratio schedule in rats. Psychopharmacology. 1989;98(3):408-411.
- Spence JT. Personal attributes questionnaire: A measure of sex role stereotypes and masculinity-femininity. JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology. 1974;4:127.
- Spitzer D. Gender and sex-based analysis in health research: a guide for CIHR peer review committees. Ottawa: Health Canada.
- Taylor SE. Biobehavioral responses to stress in females: tend-and-befriend, not fight-or-flight. Psych Rev. 2000;107(3):411-18.
- Thompson EH. Men and masculinities: Scales for masculinity ideology and masculinity related constructs. Sex Roles. 1999;27:573-607.
- Turner JM. Predictors of low bone density in young adolescent females with anorexia nervosa and other dieting disorders. Int J Eating Disorders. 2001;30(3):245-251.
- Varia M. Investigation of a nosocomial outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Toronto, Canada. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2003;169(4):285-292.
- Vidaver RM. Women subjects in NIH-funded clinical research literature: Lack of progress in both representation and analysis by sex. J Wom Health Gend Base Med. 2000;9(5):495-504.
- Ward KD. A meta-analysis of the effects of cigarette smoking on bone mineral density. Calcified Tissue International. 2001;68(5):259-270.
- Women and Health Programme. World Health Organization Centre for Health Development. Report of the consultative meeting to finalize a gender-sensitive core set of leading health indicators. Kobe, Japan: World Health Organization. http://www.who.or.jp/library/cm_report.pdf
- World Economic Forum. Women’s empowerment: Measuring the global gender gap. http://www.ncwo-online.org/data/images/WorldEconomicForum.pdf