Five steps of EBM

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  • Updated.jpg This entry is out of date, and will not be updated, August 2018


See also Evidence-based health care | Evidence-based practice workshops | Systematic review searching

Evidence-based medicine (EBM)

"EBM is the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making clinical decisions about the care of individual patients." — David Sackett, McMaster University

Five steps of EBM

  1. Asking answerable questions
  2. Finding the best evidence
  3. Critically appraising the evidence
  4. Acting on the evidence, using patient values
  5. Evaluating performance of decision

Seven steps of evidence-based nursing

Melnyk et al describe evidence-based practice in nursing as a series of 7 steps:

  • Step 0 – Cultivate a spirit of inquiry
  • Step 1 – Ask clinical questions in PICOT format
  • Step 2 – Search for the best evidence
  • Step 3 – Critically appraise the evidence
  • Step 4 – Integrate the evidence with clinical expertise and patient preferences and values
  • Step 5 – Evaluate the outcomes of the practice decisions or changes based on evidence
  • Step 6 – Disseminate EBP results
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