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- 1 March 2013
See also Evidence-based health care | Evidence-based practice workshops | Systematic review searching
This page is a list of research questions that pertain to the application of education theories to teaching EBM
- Given the barriers to knowledge transfer of the best evidence in medicine, do educational theories play a role in facilitating the teaching of evidence-based medicine (EBM)?
- What major educational theories have been evaluated for use in teaching EBM principles in the undergrad years, post-grad to professional practice?
- What can reasonably be expected of learning theories as they apply to EBM teaching?
- Which learning theories have some potential application to inform future, efficient means of EBM teaching?
- Perhaps the reasons as to why learning theories appear not to have served EBM well should be part of the research conducted (if indeed that is the case).
- Are EBM teachers required to understand learning theory to be good teachers?
- there seems to be a paucity of discourse and research regarding educational theories' application to EBM; what are the reasons for this? (Medicine seems to rely mostly on mentored values and students are generally encouraged to adopt philosophical orientations to learning how to practice.)
- significant amounts of time are spent teaching in medicine; physicians are content experts with little background in learning theory (itself not mentioned as a barrier); residents say they recognize the importance of their teaching (and interactions with medical students), but do not feel well prepared to do it effectively;
- medical students report that much of their clinical learning is experiential, and takes place in situ during interactions with attending and chief residents, and expert clinicians; zone of proximal development;
- is this area of medical education under-researched? (Literature suggests, yes.)
- problem-based learning (PBL) has much in common with EBM; yet, "intransigent patriarchies" translate into an emphasis on behaviourist and "sage on the stage" techniques;
- residents and clinicians from around the world attend "How to Teach Evidence-Based Practice" at McMaster University, arguably the birthplace of EBM - to learn how to teach;
- teaching at McMaster is not evidence-based (ie. no rigorous assessment/evaluation of teaching methods seems to be systematically undertaken); little discourse about pedagogical (or, androgogical) methods as a means to inform teaching;
- EBM basics are the focus at the University of Alberta's "Putting Evidence into Practice" Conference (no teaching component);
- effective teaching at McMaster is described as an iterative process, akin to "practicing"; while that may be true, is this an efficient means to learn how to teach?
- socio-cultural or situated learning theories seem especially relevant to EBM; in hospital environments, the model is reminiscent of Lave and Wenger's "community of practice";
- the social and cognitive experience of EBM is situated; for example, there is explicit use of mentoring techniques, and cognitive apprenticeship, facilitated by experts;
- cumulating the best evidence is critical to EBM; there are some information retrieval experts (librarians and clinicians) who suggest that EBM should shift its attention toward knowledge management, using innovative methods of searching point-of-care decision-making tools, and electronic alerting techniques in Web 2.0.
- my interest lies in using adult learning theories to transmit essential EBM search skills to clinicians; my research would focus on what theories would be most suitable to impart these information technology skills to clinicians; and, the major contexts for teaching.
- Bastiaens TJ, Marks GH. Education and information technology 2012: a selection of AACE Award papers. Chesapeake, VA: AACE, 2012.
- Explorations in Learning & Instruction:The Theory Into Practice Database - http://tip.psychology.org/
- Farrell SE. Resident-as-teacher: a suggested curriculum for emergency medicine. Acad Emerg Med. 2006;13(6):677–9.
- Giustini D. Evidence-based teaching for health librarians: some questions and considerations. JCHLA/JABSC. 2010;31(1):7–10.
- Green ML. Impact of an evidence-based medicine curriculum based on adult learning theory. J Gen Intern Med. 1997;12(12):742–50.
- Harker E. Evaluation of teaching and training sessions for maximum impact. Health Info Libr J. 2009;26(3):252–4.
- Knowles MS. The adult learner: the definitive classic in adult education and human resource development. Houston: Gulf Publishing, 1998
- Lave J, Wenger E, Situated learning: legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
- Mann KV. The role of educational theory in continuing medical education: has it helped us? J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2004;24:S22–30.
- Misch DA, Andragogy and medical education: are medical students internally motivated to learn? Adv Health Sci Educ. 2002;7:153–60.
- Pearce-Smith N, Hunter J. The introduction of librarian tutors into the Teaching Evidence-Based Medicine week in Oxford, UK. Health Info Libr J. 2005;22(2):146–9.
- Perry GJ, Kronenfeld MR. Evidence-based practice: a new paradigm brings new opportunities for health sciences librarians. Med Ref Serv Q. 2005;24(4):1–16.
- Rafuse J. Evidence-based medicine means MDs must develop new skills, attitudes. Can Med Assoc J. 1994;150:1479–80.
- Scherrer CS, Dorsch JL. The evolving role of the librarian in evidence-based medicine. Bull Med Libr Assoc. 1999;87(3):322–28.
- Towler AJ, Dipboye RL. Effects of trainer expressiveness, organization, and trainee goal orientation on training outcomes. J Applied Psych. 2001;86(4):664–73.
- Teaching and Learning in Medical Education: How Theory Can Inform Practice. http://www.asme.org.uk/pub_ume.htm
- UBC Department of Educational Studies – Dr. Dan Pratt