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BOPPPS elements - B, O, P (first three steps in organizing a lesson plan)
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Last Update

  • Updated.jpg 15 July 2017


See also ADDIE model | Information literacy | Library workshop evaluation | LibGuides from Springshare | Teaching library users

"... the BOPPPS model is a way of organizing a lesson plan in order to ensure that the session engages learners, is relevant, builds on previous learning and supports learning transfer. The following six components have proven to be very useful in designing and delivering lessons. When all the components are considered, instructors can be creative in how they order the components and, in some cases, combine them..."

BOPPPS - bridge, objective, pre-test, participatory learning, post-test, summary - is a tool to help teachers and instructors organize their workshops and teaching sessions. It serves to emphasize basic elements of instruction such as the ice-breaker or bridge-in activity, and other techniques to engage learners. To prepare for teaching, most educators develop lesson plans, which typically contain three components: an introduction to the topic, delivery of content or the body of the lecture, and concluding remarks. BOPPPS is a good starting point for lesson planning as it provides a simple map for pre-class organization. Some techniques important to the class are: explaining why the topic is important and how the learning that is planned will take place. Instructors need to determine whether participants have had any exposure to the topic before, and whether the material is new or familiar. In successful teaching, educators should gain their learners' attention, and then be able to sustain it for a time. Good teachers will strive to engage the intellect and the emotions of the participants' learning. In fact, it is self-evident that emotions will drive our attention and attention will drive further learning. If students do not pay attention to our introduction and statement of objectives or "buy in" - then it will likely be difficult for us to teach them anything during the session.

The BOPPPS model is helpful to those who are new to teaching and assists in structuring classes. BOPPPS places importance on gaining students’ interest, making the purpose of the lesson known, assessing students’ level of understanding of the topic, engaging students in active learning, determining whether the purpose has been met, and summarizing main points to reinforce what has been learned. BOPPPS requires individuals to practice pairing learning objectives (or intended learning outcomes) with class activities and assessments. While BOPPPS is seen to be very useful, some librarians choose alternatives because they find the model somewhat rigid and inflexible.

See BOPPPS Model for Lesson Planning, Queen's University & Mini Lessons Basics/BOPP, University of BC.

BOPPPS stands for


  • a bridge is an introduction, a means to generate participants' interest for the class;
  • bridging techniques begin the learning cycle;
  • gain learner’s attention through narrative, or via questions/debate;
  • build motivation; bridging explains why the topic is important;
  • usually short
    • Bridge-in strategies:
    • Provide reasons for learning the topic
    • Tell a story connected with the lesson
    • Refer to something in the learner’s realm of experience
    • Pose a provocative question linked to the current topic.


  • as in learning objectives; let students know what you're going to teach them
  • focus learners and instructors on purpose of lesson
  • ensure that everybody understands what is expected and when the learning has been accomplished
  • establish a foundation for the evaluation of the learning.


  • find out what learners know so you can tailor class to their needs;
  • determine what learners know
  • allow learners to add their own experiences to improve participation and engagement
    • Pre-assessment strategies:
    • Closed and open questioning
    • Brainstorming
    • A trial attempt without instruction;
BOPPPS elements - P, P, S

Participatory Learning

  • encourage participation and interactivity in the learning process
  • essentially, get learners to lead teaching, a peer-based learning model
  • two types of participatory learning:
    • Interaction between the instructor and the learners
    • Interaction between the learners themselves
  • In order to maintain learners' attention, let them participate or lead.


  • find out how well learners did - How do we know learning occurred? How do we measure it?
  • there is a wealth of literature on assessment; not all is helpful
  • assess learning using a method that is congruent with the intended outcomes and learning strategies
  • the post-test answers the following questions:
    • What did the learners learn?
    • Were the desired objectives accomplished?
    • Strategies for post-assessment:
    • Short test
    • Short essay
    • Analysis of a scenario.


  • wrap it up
  • summarize learning experience; create sense of closure
    • Strategies:
    • content review
    • feedback of the lecture
    • acknowledgement of effort and achievement
    • application. What can they do with the obtained knowledge?

Participatory learning activities are critical in the BOPPPS model, especially the opportunity to teach lessons to colleagues and students.

NOTE: If possible, use your Summary to relate back to the ideas in the Bridge, so that the beginning and the conclusion are more cohesive.

BOPPPS exercise

  • Create 4 groups and choose a spokesman for the group
  • Establish a topic
    • Examples:
    • section of course you are currently teaching
    • section of courses you have taught
  • Prepare a lesson plan using the BOPPPS model
  • Share the lesson plan with your colleagues.

BOPPPS example


  • Use the quotation:

"Without tools and methodologies for gathering, evaluating, managing, and presenting information, the Web's potential as a universe of knowledge is lost."

Students will apply newly-acquired web searching skills in this class to sources of information found online. Learners will assume roles of undergraduates who are researching topics for a debate on the Canadian healthcare system. Learners will use databases, search tools, and learn how to authenticate the online resources found.


  • To research and evaluate the accuracy, relevance, appropriateness, comprehensiveness, and bias of web resources
  • To explore what constitutes reliable sources of information for research and scholarly papers.
    • define web terminology.
    • apply evaluation criteria to specific web sites.
    • conduct searches and develop list of relevant and credible web resources on a given topic.
    • explore various search techniques to find educational resources effectively.
    • explain importance of authenticating online resources.
    • recognize the signs of bias and omission in information and validate online information.
    • authenticate web sources based on site authorship or ownership, content, and currency.
    • describe structure of uniform resource locators (URL's) and how they can be used to assess authorship and credibility.


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