Archivists & Librarians - Officers of the Order of Canada
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The Officer of the Order of Canada (O.C.) recognizes a lifetime of achievement and merit of a high degree, especially in service to Canada or to humanity at large. This page is a work in progress; I will continue to add archivists and librarians who have been invested into the Order of Canada as I have time to search the Governor General of Canada database.
To be added (soon)
The following archivists and librarians are in the process of being added to this page:
John Hall Archer
John Hall Archer (1914 - 2004) was born and educated in Saskatchewan, earning his Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts degrees from the University of Saskatchewan. In 1949, he received a Bachelor of Library Science degree from McGill University. During the 1950s, Archer was the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan librarian and assistant clerk of the Legislature. He served as the provincial archivist from 1957 to 1962, and chairman of the Committee on Continuing Education until, in 1964, he became Director of Libraries at McGill University. From 1967 to 1970, Archer was an archivist and Associate Professor of History at Queen's University. It was during this time he earned his Doctor of Philosophy degree from Queen's University. In 1970, Archer became Principal of the Regina campus of the University of Saskatchewan and became the first President of the University of Regina in 1974.
Archer served on numerous Royal Commissions, boards and advisory councils, and was a prolific author and editor. His books include Land of Promise (1969), Saskatchewan: A History (1980), Honoured with the Burden (1987) and, as editor, One Canada (1975–78), the memoirs of John Diefenbaker. He received the Saskatchewan Order of Merit in 1987. The University of Regina’s main library is named after him. Ian E. Wilson, former National Librarian and Archivist of Canada, said of Archer: "...[he] was a teacher, a colleague, a friend, and a mentor. At Queen’s University, we shared an office and over the course of many years, I have often reflected that I had the best possible start for my career in archives."
Archer received the Order of Canada in 1980.
Rita Marjorie Cox
Rita Marjorie Cox (1939 - ) is a librarian by profession and renowned storyteller who has been described as "an exceptional individual who, through her love of the spoken and written word, has inspired people of all ages and has opened the literary world to her audiences". Cox joined the Toronto Public Library as a children’s librarian in 1960. In 1972, she became the head librarian of the Parkdale Branch, and while there launched literacy programs and other initiatives promoting multiculturalism. In 1973, she pioneered the library’s Black Heritage and West Indian Resource Collection, which was renamed the Black and Caribbean Heritage Collection. It is one of the most comprehensive collections of its kind in Canada and a source of community pride.
Cox has been on the board of the Storytellers School of Toronto and has served as chairperson. Her stories have appeared in many anthologies and school readers. Cox tells stories from the Caribbean, Africa and around the world. She established "Cumbayah", a festival of Black heritage and storytelling. As a storyteller, she weaves oral history and the written word to open the magic world of books. She says that "she gives [people] the tools to pursue their hopes and dreams". Her children’s book, entitled, How Trouble Made the Monkey Eat Pepper, has entertained audiences worldwide. She maintains her storytelling legacy by training new storytellers, many of whom are current library staff. On retiring from the Toronto Public Library in 1995, Cox was appointed a Citizenship Court Judge by the Government of Canada.
Cox has won numerous awards, including the Canadian Library Association’s Public Service Award and the Black Achievement Award. In 1997, Cox was appointed a Member of the Order of Canada for her outstanding work in storytelling and literacy.
Sheila Egoff (1918 - 2005) was a widely respected authority on children's literature, and is credited with making it a respected scholarly discipline. Born in Maine, she spent her early years in Ontario and attended the University of Toronto, where in 1938 she received a diploma in library science. After working as a children's librarian at the Galt Public Library, she joined the Toronto Public Library becoming its reference librarian in 1952. Over the next nine years, Egoff completed a Bachelor of Arts degree at the University of Toronto and a second library diploma at the University of London, England. She joined the University of British Columbia in 1961 as the first tenured professor in children's literature.
Among her accomplishments, Egoff established the Osborne Collection of Early Children's Books at the Toronto Public Library, and a program in children's literature at the University of Toronto. She insisted that only books of the highest quality were good enough for children. Her books such as The Republic of Childhood: A Critical Guide to Canadian Children's Literature (1967) and Worlds Within: Children's Fantasy from the Middle Ages to Today are considered classics. Egoff won several awards such as the Ralph Shaw Award from the American Library Association, the Outstanding Public Library Service Award from the Canadian Association of Public Libraries and the Anne Devereaux Jordan Award from the Children's Literature Association.
Egoff was the first professor of children's literature to be named an Officer of the Order of Canada (2004).
Norman Horrocks (1927 – 2010) was born in Manchester England. He earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in Constitutional History from the University of Western Australia, a Master of Library Science degree from the University of Western Australia, and a PhD from the University of Pittsburgh. He began his library career in Manchester England from 1943-53 interrupted by three years' service in the British Army's Intelligence Corps. He joined Dalhousie University in 1971, and became Director of the School of Library and Information Studies (now School of Information Management) and later was also Dean of the Faculty of Management. Horrocks was president of the Association for Library and Information Science Education in 1985-86. He left Canada in 1986 to become Editorial Vice President of Scarecrow Press, a leading reference book publisher in New Jersey until he returned to Halifax in 1995.
Horrocks inspired students and colleagues with a passion for books and librarianship. His advice was sought by organizations in publishing and the humanities, and his broad knowledge and counsel were sought in building library associations around the world. He is highly regarded for creating and fostering professional networks to allow librarians, from rural Canada to urban Australia, to exchange ideas and advance the field. In fact, it can be said Norman was an enthusiastic pioneer of social networking for he had an ability to remember names and faces and to make connections across continents whether in person, by email or via sharing news with his students, colleagues and friends.
In 2006, Horrocks was named an Officer of the Order of Canada in recognition of his devotion to library and information science.
William Kaye Lamb
William Kaye Lamb (1904 - 1999), former first national librarian and archivist of Canada, was born in New Westminster, BC and died in Vancouver. He was educated at UBC (BA, 1927, MA, 1930), the Sorbonne and the London School of Economics (PhD, 1933). Lamb served as BC's provincial librarian and archivist from 1934 to 1940 and as UBC's head librarian from 1940 to 1948. He was appointed Dominion Archivist in 1948. As national archivist and librarian, Lamb played a critical role in the development of two of Canada's most important cultural institutions. His program of documentary acquisitions and the introduction of improved records management systems enhanced the value of and access to the National Archives.
Lamb specialized in the early history of British Columbia. He edited and wrote a number of scholarly books relating to explorers of Western Canada, including George Vancouver, Daniel Williams Harmon and Sir Alexander MacKenzie, as well as a volume on the history of the Canadian Pacific Railway. In his role in the planning and development of the National Library, from its creation in 1953, he focused on making the institution more prominent and accessible. In 1949, Lamb was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and was president from 1965 to 1966. In 1999, Lamb died at the University Hospital in Vancouver at the age of 95.
At his memorial service in 1999, Basil Stuart-Stubbs, University Librarian Emeritus, praised Lamb’s memory as "dazzling". Like his mentor FW Howay, Lamb was a collector of knowledge and a builder of culture, and keenly attuned to literature. According to Stuart-Stubbs "...he seemed to have an innate understanding of organizational behaviour and human nature. . . . trust and delegation were to be the permanent hallmarks of his administrative style. Similarly, he seemed to have an instinctive knowledge of bureaucracies and how to work within them effectively."
Lamb became a member of the Order of Canada in 1969.
Jessie Mifflen (1906 - 1994) was born in Newfoundland and Labrador (formerly Newfoundland), and was instrumental in the establishing library services throughout her home province. She graduated with degrees from Memorial University and Mount Allison, and served as a field worker with the Newfoundland and Labrador Commission of Adult Education. Mifflen earned her library science degree from the University of Toronto. She served in the Royal Canadian Air Force during World War II.
In 1950, she accepted a position as director of the Newfoundland Public Library Service. As there were few public libraries in Newfoundland and Labrador in the 1950s, particularly in the province's outports and remote communities, Mifflen sought to establish public libraries in various parts of the province. Her visits to remote areas were made by dogteam, bush plane, small boat and coastal steamer. The trips took days and, in some cases, weeks. On her retirement in 1972, more than 50 libraries had been established throughout the province.
Mifflen's contributions outside of Newfoundland and Labrador include serving as the President of the Atlantic Provinces Library Association (APLA) and Vice-President of the Canadian Library Association (CLA). In 1966, she was one of five Canadian librarians selected to observe libraries in the USSR. She was awarded a Canada Council Centennial Medal in 1967. She was awarded the Canadian Library Association's Outstanding Service to Librarians award and holds honorary degrees from both Mount Allison University and Memorial University.
As a storyteller, Mifflen used her presentations and writing as a basis for three books. She also wrote radio scripts and broadcasts for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC). Mifflen became a member of the Order of Canada in 1973.
Elizabeth Homer Morton
Elizabeth Homer Morton (1903 - 1977) was born in and received her primary education in Trinidad, as her parents were missionaries there. She returned to Canada in the 1920s and earned a Bachelor of Arts degree from Dalhousie University and a teaching degree from the Normal School in Truro, Nova Scotia. After graduating from the Ontario Library School in Toronto, she worked in the Cataloguing Department of Toronto Public Library. In 1928, she accepted a position to organize the library at the Saint John Vocational School in New Brunswick, and later served as secretary of the New Brunswick Library Commission. In 1931, she returned to Toronto to work in the Reference Department of the Toronto Public Library where she remained until 1944. From 1936 to 1943, she also served as secretary-treasurer of the Ontario Library Association.
In 1944, Morton was appointed executive secretary of the newly-incorporated Canadian Library Council. She was instrumental in the establishment of the Canadian Library Association (CLA) serving as executive director from 1946 until 1968. Former National Librarian W. Kaye Lamb said that Morton promoted CLA's interests with imagination, wisdom and boundless patience. Under her stewardship, CLA lobbied for the establishment of Library and Archives Canada, and the Canadian Periodical Index. The Canadian Library Journal and Feliciter also began publication with Morton as editor.
In recognition of her professional achievements, CLA published Librarianship in Canada, 1946 to 1967 following her retirement as Exective Director in 1968. She was awarded the Order of Canada in 1968, an honorary Doctor of Laws from the University of Alberta in 1969 and an honorary Doctor of Letters from Sir George Williams University (now Concordia) in 1970.
Marianne Florence Scott
Marianne Florence Scott (1928 - ) was born in Toronto Ontario in December 1928. She earned her Bachelor of Library Science degree from McGill University, and immediately started her career as a law librarian. She was the law librarian at McGill University from 1955 to 1973, a lecturer in the Faculty of Law from 1964 to 1974, and the director of McGill University Libraries from 1975 to 1984.
Scott was the cofounder of the Index to Canadian Legal Periodical Literature in 1963, and was awarded the Queen's Silver Jubilee Medal in 1977. She was the first woman to be appointed as the National Librarian of Canada, a position she held for fifteen years from 1984-1999. In 1995, the Governor General paid tribute to Marianne Scott by saying "...Her long career as librarian at McGill University, her presidency of the Canadian Library Association and her involvement in many other professional organizations, made her an ideal choice for the post of National Librarian. Her expertise in developing collections and services has benefited all library users, especially researchers and scholars... ".
Throughout her career, Scott was active on boards and executives of various professional library associations at both the national and international levels. In 1999, Scott said, "Librarians and libraries must be in the forefront of promoting and protecting intellectual freedom, promoting literacy, and fighting for equitable access to information for all citizens. Because of the digital revolution and electronic communications, we can now truly see the possibility of equitable access to information from coast to coast to coast."
Scott became a member of the Order of Canada in 1995.
Basil Frederick Stuart-Stubbs (1930 - 2012) was born in Moncton, New Brunswick and earned a Bachelor of Arts degree at the University of British Columbia in 1952, and a Bachelor of Library Science degree from McGill University in 1954. His library career began at McGill where he was a reference librarian from 1954 to 1956. Stuart-Stubbs began his career at the UBC Library in 1956, working in various divisions such as cataloguing, serials and special collections. He became UBC's University Librarian in 1964, and remained in that position until 1981, when he became Director of the UBC School of Librarianship, later renamed the School of Library, Archival and Information Studies.
In 1971, Stuart-Stubbs (with Anthony N. Blicq) was instrumental in the creation of UBC Press. In 1977, he oversaw the creation of a provincial inter-library lending network for universities on behalf of the BC Ministry of Education. During his career, he contributed as an author, editor and conference presenter on library history and education, publishing, copyright and resource sharing. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, and received many awards including the Canada Medal in 1967, Outstanding Academic Librarian from the Canadian Association of College and University Libraries in 1978, and the Order of Canada in 2005. Stuart-Stubbs was presented with the Gray Campbell Distinguished Service Award in 2004, for his contributions to the British Columbia publishing industry. In the mid-1960s, he was a founding member of the Alcuin Society which was concerned with book production and appreciation - and he continued to be active in the society well into retirement. On his retirement in 1992, he was named Emeritus Professor of UBC.
Stuart-Stubbs became a member of the Order of Canada in 2006.
Mary Eileen Travis
Mary Eileen Travis née Connolly (1931 - 2005) was born in New Glasgow, Nova Scotia and died in New Brunswick. She earned her Bachelor of Arts degree at St. Frances Xavier University and her Library Science degree at McGill. Travis began her career as a Bookmobile Librarian in her native Nova Scotia. In 1960, she moved to Saint John as the head librarian of the Children's Department at the Saint John Free Public Library. She became Regional Librarian in 1969, a position she held for 28 years until retiring in 1997.
Travis was a role model for single mothers, raising two children after her husband was killed in a 1970 plane crash. Active in the Atlantic Provinces Library Association, she served as its president from 1967-1969, as president of the Canadian Library Association and as a member of the National Library of Canada Advisory. In 1972, she was honoured as Saint John's Woman of the Year. In 1977, she was the recipient of the Queen’s Silver Jubilee Medal. In 1982, she earned the Merit Award from the Atlantic Provinces Library Association. In 1983, she became the first woman to head the Saint John Board of Trade. For the Canada Summer Games in 1985 she was named Vice-President of Ceremonies.
Later in her career, Travis distinguished herself in community service and helped to create the Hestia House Women’s Shelter. She also served on the Board of Govenors at St. Francis Xavier University, and as president of Opera New Brunswick from 1999-2011. In 2003, she was honoured by the YMCA with the Red Triangle Award and the Queen’s Jubilee Award. In 2004, she was presented with the Chairman’s Award from the Saint John Board of Trade.
Travis became a member of the Order of Canada in 2005.
Ian E. Wilson
Ian E. Wilson (1943 - ) was born in Montreal, attended the Collège militaire royal de Saint-Jean and obtained a Master's degree from Queen's University in 1974. He began his career at Queen's University Archives in 1967, later becoming Saskatchewan's Provincial Archivist (1976–86) and Chairman of the Saskatchewan Heritage Advisory Board. He was the Archivist of Ontario from 1986 to 1999. For several years he was also responsible for the Ontario Public Library system. He became Librarian and Archivist of Canada in 2004, and had previously been the National Archivist of Canada. With Roch Carrier, the then National Librarian, he led the process to link the National Archives and National Library as a unified institution. His career has spanned archival and information management, university teaching and government service. He has published on history, archives, heritage, and information management and has lectured nationally and abroad. He retired as head of LAC in 2009.
Wilson served as President of the Ontario Historical Society (1975–1976) and more recently as President of the Champlain Society (1995 - 2003). He was the Vice-President of the International Council on Archives from 2000 to 2004. In 2001, he was awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Letters from York University in recognition of his contribution to Canadian archives. In 2003, he was elected Fellow of the Society of American Archivists and appointed Commandeur de l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres by the Government of France. In 2009, Wilson became a Fellow of the Association of Canadian Archivists, an honour bestowed upon him at the ACA conference.
Wilson became a member of the Order of Canada in 2002.