ADDIE model

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ADDIE – an iterative instructional design model to help structure short courses and workshops
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Contents

Last Update

  • Updated.jpg 1 November 2013

Introduction

See also ASSURE model | BOPPPS Model | Instructional design models | Library workshop evaluation | Research Portal for Academic Librarians | Teaching library users

ADDIE – analysis, design, develop, implement, evaluate – is a five-step (or stage) model used to systematically design and organize units in training and in workshops. As an instructional design model or IDM, ADDIE was first described in 1975. Similar models include the ASSURE model, Gagne's and Kemp's and Merrill's. ADDIE is one of a number of IDMs, and the acronym is used to remind instructors about how to plan their workshops and courses. Many ADDIE-based workshops will range in scope and depth, and may include devising content, learning objectives, teaching materials, instructional guidance, course evaluation and feedback. IDMs are popular in the private sector, and in industry-based educational training; the model is easily adaptable to library workshops created by academic librarians in colleges and universities. ADDIE can be applied to decisions that have to be made about learning content, instructional methods and delivery, and is meant to align with an instructor's learning theories and philosophies. The goal of instructional design is to ensure quality, consistency and effectiveness of the learning experience but also to support the philosophical orientation of instructor and learners. One of the challenges of current instructional design is to incorporate forms of social learning and other interactive pedagogies into the classroom. According to Davis (2013), the ADDIE model is helpful in collaborating with instructional designers, faculty and other librarians in higher education. Reinbold (2013) published results where ".... librarians at Weill Cornell Medical College used [ADDIE] to redesign an evidence-based medicine course taken by first-year medical students."

ADDIE Model

ADDIE is a systematic tool that is used by instructional designers and teachers around the world to structure their short courses and workshops.

ADDIE consists of five phases of development:

  1. A - Analysis
  2. D - Design
  3. D - Develop
  4. I - Implement
  5. E - Evaluate

The ADDIE model is an iterative model of instructional design whose aim is to examine the entire design and development process from start to finish. This includes some early consideration of learning objectives such as "What do the learners need to learn from this course or workshop?". However, it comprises the entire middle as well as final stages of course development, and may include when instructors encourage their learners to reflect back on events during their training. Question prompts such as "Did you feel you learned what you wanted to learn?" and "Did the participants learn what the instructors wanted them to learn?" can provide some possible directions to pursue this important line of questioning. Keep in mind that learning how to do something is different from learning about how to do something...

As the above graphic conveys, each phase of ADDIE feeds into the next step and involves a review of concepts and evaluation components.

Key websites & video

A = Analysis

  • Note: a "pre-phase" project initiation may occur before A=analysis
  • Identify learning needs, goals and objectives
  • Do needs analysis or administer pre-session skills test
  • Examine learners, test for existing knowledge, other relevant characteristics
  • Consider learners' social and cultural context; their learning environment, how it may affect participants' learning
  • Consider all factors; complete timeline and Gantt chart, deliverables

D = Design

  • Identify instructional design strategy
  • Select appropriate delivery method
  • Develop storyboards and prototypes
  • Evaluate possible learning spaces; available media
  • Determine pedagogical requirements, user-interfaces, delivery of content

D = Develop

  • Creating an actual prototype is recommended
  • Develop the content and learning materials
  • Course development is informed by the design phase and templates
  • Test the course template, do a run-through and review

I = Implement

  • Establish training schedule
  • Put plan in place, and procedures for training
  • Print and distribute learning objects and materials
  • After delivery, training materials are (re)evaluated
  • Feedback and attendance forms, participant feedback

E = Evaluate

  • Evaluate each step of ADDIE model
  • Complete final evaluation; review the overall effectiveness of approach
  • Get feedback from learners after instructional event
  • Revise approach, delivery and content

Health librarian research into ADDIE

This poster examines the use of the ADDIE model (an instructional design model) in designing bibliographic instruction. It reviews the redesign of a library workshop based on the ADDIE model. The model is a systematic approach to creating effective and efficient instruction based on an in-depth analysis of goals and objectives. It emphasizes a task-based rather than knowledge-based approach to learning. By deliberately focusing on the desired outcomes of learning, courses can be streamlined and structured in a way that is relevant to the learners, meets their needs, and facilitates active learning. The use of ADDIE resulted in a workshop that was more interactive, had multiple methods of delivery (including lecture, small group activities, online learning, and self-paced discovery), and measurable learning objectives. A number of steps helped to accomplish this, including determination of objectives mapped to student tasks, performance aids, and performance tests. The ADDIE model moved instruction away from the pattern of teacher-centered knowledge toward student-centered interactive learning process. ADDIE is both cyclical and nonlinear: evaluation takes place during every phase. After the final phase, analysis begins again (based on evaluation results); the workshop was thus more organized, cohesive and learner-centered than previously. ADDIE is an iterative process that librarians can utilize in their bibliographic instruction to create focused, learner-centered instruction that meets librarian and student learning goals and objectives.

ADDIE strengths & weaknesses

Strengths Weaknesses
~ Cost-effective, linear in structure; the basis for almost every model coming after it ~ ADDIE's linear structure is also one of its criticisms
~ Fewer steps and parsimony; focuses on planning; suits "problem-based learning" ~ Each step is very broad; only one step for actual teaching process
~ Based on identifying problems & solutions; teacher has a design step ~ Evaluation comes at the end; it would benefit from earlier placement
~ Bears striking similarity to other "first principles of learning" (and backed up with evidence) ~ ADDIE focuses on process not on learning; ADDIE is a tool not a pedagogy
~ ADDIE is a framework on which all ID models are built; all design work is based on ADDIE ~ Experts say ADDIE is a series of steps not a framework; should be more elaborative
~ Objectives and goals are neatly organized and clearly defined ~ Learning is not as linear as ADDIE suggests; not designed to complement deep learning

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